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A-1 Extended Learning Module A Computer Hardware and Software.

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Presentation on theme: "A-1 Extended Learning Module A Computer Hardware and Software."— Presentation transcript:

1 A-1 Extended Learning Module A Computer Hardware and Software

2 A-2 Presentation Overview A Quick Tour of Technology A Quick Tour of Technology Categories of Computers by Size Categories of Computers by Size Software: Your Intellectual Interface Software: Your Intellectual Interface Hardware: Your Physical Interface Hardware: Your Physical Interface The Complete Computer At Work The Complete Computer At Work

3 A-3 Introduction Information technology (IT) – computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization. Information technology (IT) – computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization. Hardware – the physical devices that make up a computer. Hardware – the physical devices that make up a computer. Software – the set of instructions that your hardware executes to carry out a specific task for you. Software – the set of instructions that your hardware executes to carry out a specific task for you. See the PDA, scanner, and monitor photos in Figure A.1 See the PDA, scanner, and monitor photos in Figure A.1

4 A-4 A Quick Tour of Technology Six categories of hardware Six categories of hardware 1. Input device 2. Output device 3. Storage device 4. Central processing unit (CPU) 5. Telecommunications device 6. Connecting device See photos of devices in Figure A.2 See photos of devices in Figure A.2

5 A-5 A Quick Tour of Technology Software types include: Software types include:  Application software - solves specific problems or perform specific tasks.  System software - handles tasks specific to technology management. Operating system software - controls application software and manages hardware devices. Operating system software - controls application software and manages hardware devices. Utility software - provides additional functionality to the operating system. Utility software - provides additional functionality to the operating system.

6 A-6 Categories of Computers By Size Personal Digital Assistants, Notebook Computers, and Desktop Computers Personal digital assistant (PDA) - small hand-held computer that surfs the Web and performs simple tasks. Personal digital assistant (PDA) - small hand-held computer that surfs the Web and performs simple tasks. Notebook computer - a fully functional computer that runs on battery power. Notebook computer - a fully functional computer that runs on battery power. Desktop computer - the most popular choice. Desktop computer - the most popular choice. See Figure A.4 See Figure A.4

7 A-7 Categories of Computers By Size Minicomputers, Mainframe Computers, and Supercomputers Minicomputer – used in a small to medium-size business environment. Minicomputer – used in a small to medium-size business environment. Mainframe computer – used in a large business environment. Mainframe computer – used in a large business environment. Supercomputers - the fastest, most powerful, and most expensive type of computer. Supercomputers - the fastest, most powerful, and most expensive type of computer. Notice Supercomputer photo from A.5 Notice Supercomputer photo from A.5

8 A-8 Software: Your Intellectual Interface Application Software Application software is used to meet specific information-processing needs, including such things as: Application software is used to meet specific information-processing needs, including such things as:  Payroll  Customer relationship management  Project management  Training  Word processing and many others.

9 A-9 Software: Your Intellectual Interface Application Software Personal productivity software - performs personal tasks, including such things as creating: Personal productivity software - performs personal tasks, including such things as creating:  Memos  Graphs  Slide presentations Team Work Buying Personal Productivity Software Suites

10 A-10 Software: Your Intellectual Interface Application Software Vertical market software - unique to a particular industry. Examples include: Vertical market software - unique to a particular industry. Examples include:  Patient-scheduling software  Nursing allocation software Horizontal market software - general enough to be suitable for use in a variety of industries. Examples include: Horizontal market software - general enough to be suitable for use in a variety of industries. Examples include:  Inventory management software  Payroll software

11 A-11 Software: Your Intellectual Interface System Software Operating system software - controls application software and manages how hardware devices work together. Operating system software - controls application software and manages how hardware devices work together.  Microsoft Windows 2000 Pro  Microsoft Windows 2000 ME  Microsoft Windows XP Home  Microsoft Windows XP Pro  Mac OS  Linux

12 A-12 Software: Your Intellectual Interface System Software Utility software - adds additional functionality to the operating system. Utility software - adds additional functionality to the operating system.  Anti-virus software  Crash-proof software  Uninstaller software  Disk optimization software Team Work Evaluating Utility Software Suites

13 A-13 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Binary digit (bit) - the smallest unit of information. Binary digit (bit) - the smallest unit of information. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) - the coding system that most personal computers use to represent, process, and store information. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) - the coding system that most personal computers use to represent, process, and store information. Byte - a group of eight bits represents one natural language character. Byte - a group of eight bits represents one natural language character.

14 A-14 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Common Input Devices Input device - a tool you use to capture information and commands. Examples include: Input device - a tool you use to capture information and commands. Examples include:  Keyboard  Point-of-sale (POS)  Microphone  Mouse  Trackball  Pointing stick  Touch pad  Touch screen  Bar code reader  Optical mark recognition (OMR)  Scanner

15 A-15 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Common Output Devices Output device - a tool you use to see, hear, or otherwise accept the results of your information-processing requests. Output device - a tool you use to see, hear, or otherwise accept the results of your information-processing requests.

16 A-16 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Common Output Devices CRTs – look like television sets. CRTs – look like television sets. Flat-panel displays – thin, lightweight monitors that take up much less space than CRTs. Flat-panel displays – thin, lightweight monitors that take up much less space than CRTs.

17 A-17 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Common Output Devices Resolution of a screen – number of pixels it has. Resolution of a screen – number of pixels it has. Dot pitch – the distance between the centers of a pair of like-colored pixels. Dot pitch – the distance between the centers of a pair of like-colored pixels. Resolution of a printer - the number of dots per inch (dpi) it produces, which is the same principle as the resolution in monitors. Resolution of a printer - the number of dots per inch (dpi) it produces, which is the same principle as the resolution in monitors.

18 A-18 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Common Output Devices Inkjet printers – make images by forcing ink droplets through nozzles. Inkjet printers – make images by forcing ink droplets through nozzles. Laser printers – form images using an electrostatic process. Laser printers – form images using an electrostatic process. Multifunction printers – scan, copy, and fax, as well as print. Multifunction printers – scan, copy, and fax, as well as print. On Your Own Finding a Printer to Meet Your Needs

19 A-19 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Characteristics of CPUs and RAM CPU CPU  Speed measured in megahertz (MHz) and gigahertz (GHz).  Contains control unit and arithmetic/logic unit (A/L unit) - see Fig A.12 RAM RAM  Capacity measured in megabytes (millions of characters)

20 A-20 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Common Storage Devices Common storage devices include: Common storage devices include:  Floppy disk  High-capacity floppy disk  Hard disk  CD-ROM  CD-R (compact disc – recordable)  CD-RW (compact disc – rewritable)  DVD-ROM  DVD-R  DVD-RW, or DVD-RAM, or DVD+RW (all different names by different manufacturers)

21 A-21 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Telecommunications Devices Network - two or more computers connected so that they can communicate with each other and possibly share information, software, peripheral devices, and/or processing power. Network - two or more computers connected so that they can communicate with each other and possibly share information, software, peripheral devices, and/or processing power. Telephone modem - a device that connects your computer to your phone line so that you can access another computer or network. Telephone modem - a device that connects your computer to your phone line so that you can access another computer or network.

22 A-22 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Telecommunications Devices Types of modems include: Types of modems include:  Telephone modem  Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) modem  Cable modem  Satellite modem Module E covers these in more detail. Module E covers these in more detail.

23 A-23 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Telecommunications Devices Communication software includes: Communication software includes:  Connectivity software – enables you to use your computer to “dial up” or connect to another computer.  Web browser software – enables you to surf the Web.  software – enables you to electronically communicate with other people by sending and receiving .

24 A-24 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Connecting Devices Connecting devices enable your hardware to communicate with each other. Connecting devices enable your hardware to communicate with each other. Busses – system and expansion. Busses – system and expansion. Expansion – slots and cards. Expansion – slots and cards. Ports and connectors – USB, serial, parallel, and IrDA Ports and connectors – USB, serial, parallel, and IrDA

25 A-25 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Connecting Devices Popular connectors include: Popular connectors include:  USB (universal serial bus) –the most popular means of connecting devices to a computer.  Serial connector – usually has 9 holes but may have 25, which fit into the corresponding number of pins in the port.  Parallel connector – has 25 pins, which fit into the corresponding holes in the port.

26 A-26 Hardware: Your Physical Interface Connecting Devices IrDA (infrared data association) ports – are for wireless devices that work in essentially the same way as the remote control on your TV does. IrDA (infrared data association) ports – are for wireless devices that work in essentially the same way as the remote control on your TV does.

27 A-27 Putting it all together… See example program on pp See example program on pp  Describes simple program for adding two numbers  Describes how the CPU processes the program statements to give output

28 A-28 See you in class!


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