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INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Special Operations Overview Click arrow below to continue WARNING - This document contains technical data.

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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Special Operations Overview Click arrow below to continue WARNING - This document contains technical data."— Presentation transcript:

1 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Special Operations Overview Click arrow below to continue WARNING - This document contains technical data whose export is restricted by the Arms Export Control Act (Title 22, U.S.C., Sec 2751, subject to severe criminal penalties. Disseminate in accordance with provisions of DoD Directive This document contains information EXEMPT FROM MANDATORY DISCLOSURE under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). 1

2 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified What are Special Operations? MISO Leaflet Drop Counterterrorism 2

3 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Special Operations or SO are acts or activities such as: What are Special Operations? Direct Action Civil Affairs Operations Foreign Internal Defense 3

4 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Special Operations Forces or SOF, are forces or units of the military services designated by the Secretary of Defense to conduct or support Special Operations. What are Special Operations? 4

5 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Special Forces or SF are specific U.S. Army forces organized, trained and equipped to conduct Special Operations with an emphasis of unconventional warfare capabilities. What are Special Operations? 5

6 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Tactical operations to achieve effects at the strategic or operational levels of war What are Special Operations? 6

7 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified SO can be conducted in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive environments What are Special Operations? 7

8 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified JFSC Pub 1 Levels of War Strategic level of war — The level of war at which a nation, often as a member of a group of nations, determines national or multinational (alliance or coalition) strategic security objectives and guidance, and develops and uses national resources to achieve these objectives. Tactical level of war — The level of war at which battles and engagements are planned and executed to achieve military objectives assigned to tactical units or task forces. Operational level of war — The level of war at which campaigns and major operations are planned, conducted, and sustained to achieve strategic objectives within theaters or other operational areas. 8

9 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Differences from Conventional Operations 9

10 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Acceptance of greater physical and political risk Differences from Conventional Operations 10

11 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Operational techniques and modes of employment Differences from Conventional Operations 11

12 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Dependence on detailed operational intelligence and indigenous assets Differences from Conventional Operations Special Operations are dependent on very detailed and real-time intelligence Guard schedules The height and thickness of walls Precise locations of both friendly and hostile forces Which way doors open and close Special Operations are dependent on very detailed and real-time intelligence Guard schedules The height and thickness of walls Precise locations of both friendly and hostile forces Which way doors open and close 12

13 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Independence from friendly support and more reliance on unconventional support and sophisticated communications Differences from Conventional Operations 13

14 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Special Operations Characteristics 14

15 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Special Operations Employment Special Operations Characteristics 15

16 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Conducted across the entire range of military operations Special Operations Characteristics 16

17 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Use of Other Forces Special Operations Characteristics 17

18 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Special Operations Requirements 18

19 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Special Operations Advantages Objective vulnerability Minimize political liability and risk of escalation Reduced visibility Results are often disproportionate to the size of the force 19

20 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Direct/Indirect Approaches 20

21 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Short, sharply focused offensive actions to isolate and defeat the threat mostly through violent, kinetic actions. Rapidly dominate chosen points of vulnerability. Clarity of purpose and a clearly defined aim. Focus is physical and material instead of psychological. Decisive in impact but not end state. Direct Approach Direct/Indirect Approaches 21

22 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Focus on preparing, shaping and influencing the environment. Sets conditions for targeted application of the direct approach. Targets the minds of the adversaries and populations. Irregular means in a protracted, methodical, and deliberate manner. Through, by, and with indigenous forces to preserve legitimacy or obscure intentions while achieving strategic and operational objectives. Indirect Approach Direct/Indirect Approaches 22

23 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Historical Special Operations The Doolittle Raid Burning ships in Pearl Harbor B-25B Mitchell medium bomber USS Hornet, Yorktown class aircraft carrier Historical Special Operations 23

24 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Historical Special Operations Improvised low-level bombing site Eighty brave men, all volunteers The plan was to launch from 400 miles, bomb and recover in China. The Doolittle Raid Historical Special Operations 24

25 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Historical Special Operations Tokyo, Japan 1942 B-25s onboard USS Hornet en route to Japan One of sixteen B25s launching off the USS Hornet The Doolittle Raid Historical Special Operations 25

26 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Historical Special Operations LTC Doolittle wires a message to a bomb Japanese soldiers escort a captured crew into the city. U.S. morale soars The Doolittle Raid Historical Special Operations 26

27 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL OPERATIONSUnclassified Conclusion Tactical operations best applied to achieve operational and strategic level effects Different than conventional operations with unique characteristics, requirements and advantages Are applied across the full range of military operations A compliment to conventional operations, not a substitute Conclusion 27


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