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Unified Land Operations

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1 Unified Land Operations
Scene Setter Unified Action Synchronization, coordination, and/or integration of the activities of governmental and non- governmental entities with military operations to achieve unity of effort Unified Land Operations How the Army seizes, retains, and exploits the initiative to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations through simultaneous offensive, defensive, and stability operations in order to prevent or deter conflict, prevail in war, and create the conditions for favorable conflict resolution. Lasting Stable Peace Support to GCCs and Ambassadors To Achieve . . . By Means of the Army’s Core Competencies Provides the Operational Context Offensive Defensive Stability DSCA Combined Arms Maneuver The application of the elements of combat power in unified action to defeat enemy ground forces; to seize, occupy, and defend land areas; and to achieve physical, temporal, and psychological advantages over the enemy to seize and exploit the initiative. Wide Area Security The application of the elements of combat power in unified action to protect populations, forces, infrastructure, and activities; to deny the enemy positions of advantage; and to consolidate gains in order to retain the initiative. The realm of Civil Affairs and Military Governance Operations With Defeat or Stability Mechanisms How Friendly Forces Accomplish the Mission Stability mechanism – Army Doctrine Reference Publication (ADRP) 3-0 Operations The primary method through which friendly forces affect civilians in order to attain conditions that support establishing a lasting, stable peace. *Usually used in Wide Area Security. As with defeat mechanisms, combinations of stability mechanisms produce complementary and reinforcing effects that accomplish the mission more effectively and efficiently than single mechanisms do alone. Influence involves altering the opinions and attitudes of the host-nation population through inform and influence activities, presence, and conduct. Support involves establishing, reinforcing, or setting the conditions necessary for the other instruments of national power to function effectively; coordinating and cooperating closely with hostnation civilian agencies; and assisting aid organizations as necessary to secure humanitarian access to vulnerable populations. Compel involves maintaining the threat—or actual use—of lethal force to establish control and dominance, effect behavioral change, or enforce cessation of hostilities, peace agreements, or other arrangements. Control involves establishing public order and safety; securing borders, routes, sensitive sites, population centers, and individuals; and physically occupying key terrain and facilities. The combination of stability tasks conducted during operations depends on the situation. In some operations, the host nation can meet most or all of the population’s requirements. In those cases, Army forces work with and through host-nation authorities. Commanders use civil affairs operations to mitigate how the military presence affects the populace and vice versa. Conversely, Army forces operating in a failed state may need to support the well-being of the local populace. That situation requires Army forces to work with civilian organizations to restore basic capabilities. Again, civil affairs operations prove essential in establishing trust between Army forces and civilian organizations required for effective, working relationships. Destroy Dislocate Disintegrate Isolate Influence Support Compel Control PREVENT SHAPE WIN Foreign Humanitarian Assistance Build Partner Capacity Support to Civil Administration Control Populations and Resources Transitional Military Authority Transition Veritas et Libertas

2 CA Mission MISSION 1-1. The mission of CA forces is to is to mitigate or defeat threats to civil society and conduct responsibilities normally performed by civil governments across the range of military operations by engaging and influencing the civil populace and authorities through the planning and conducting of CAO, or to enable CMO, to shape the civil environment and set the conditions for military operations. CA forces plan, prepare for, execute, assess, and transition CAO at all levels of war. Joint Publication (JP) 3-57, Civil-Military Operations, states Civil Affairs forces are designated Active and Reserve Component forces and units organized, trained, and equipped specifically to conduct civil affairs operations and to support civil-military operations. As defined, CA refers to the force structure—Soldiers, teams, staff personnel, and units. CA forces conduct CAO supported by other forces. CAO support the JFC’s CMO intent and are synchronized with the supported commander’s operational concept. 1-2. CA forces support unified land operations in every environment across the range of military operations. During unified land operations, CA forces conduct CAO that support and are nested within the overall mission and commander’s intent. CAO are a cornerstone to the successful execution of stability tasks. FM 3-57 Change 1, 30 September 2013

Army forces demonstrate the Army’s core competencies through decisive action—the continuous, simultaneous combinations of offensive, defensive, and stability or defense support of civil authorities tasks. (ADRP 3-0)

CIVIL ENGAGEMENT: COGNITIVE SCALE Inform C1 Facilitate C2 Coordinate C3 Collaborate C4 De-conflict C5 Resolve C5 Mitigate C5 Influence C6 Develop C6 CIVIL ENGAGEMENT: PHYSICAL SCALE Distribute P1 Deliver P2 Contract P2 Supervise P3 Construct P3 Conduct P4 Sustain P4 CIVIL RECONNAISANCE: COGNITIVE SCALE Identify C1 Verify C2 Refute C3 Process C3 Analyze C4 Review C5 Assess C6 CIVIL RECONNAISANCE: PHYSICAL SCALE Observe P1 Inspect P2 Monitor P3 Detect P4 Verbs in Red do not exist in TRADOC Pamphlet

Civil Considerations Terrain & Weather Enemy (Threat) Size Ethnicities Religions Urban, Desert, Jungle, Mountain Season / Temp METT-TC METT-TC RESOURCES HN CAPACITY Troops,Time,Support Civil Considerations Civil Vulnerability METT-TC METT-TC METT-TC

SCA & TMA: COGNITIVE SCALE Estimate C2 Implement C3 Manage C4 Integrate C5 Mitigate C5 Influence C6 Develop C6 SCA & TMA: PHYSICAL SCALE TMA ONLY Train P1 Educate P2 Advise P3 Assist P4 Direct P4 Conduct P5 Govern P6 Verbs in Red do not exist in TRADOC Pamphlet

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