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Introduction to Information Operations Attaché Corps- SEP 09

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1 Introduction to Information Operations Attaché Corps- SEP 09
UNCLASSIFIED Introduction to Information Operations Attaché Corps- SEP 09 What is IS? Why should I care? What is this IO stuff and how does it help me obtain IS? I’m so glad you asked. I’m just dying to tell you about it. The overall classification of this briefing is: UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED

2 Information Superiority
UNCLASSIFIED Information Superiority IO The operational advantage derived from the ability to collect, process, and disseminate an uninterrupted flow of information while exploiting or denying an adversary’s ability to do the same (FM 3-0, JP 3-13) KM IM Here is how the Army defines IS. We have to achieve advantages across the IE (the aggregate of individuals, organization, and systems that collect, process, disseminate, or action information) in order to significantly affect the outcome of operations. This is what IS is all about. The BLUF is that IS means that we have a clear understanding of reality and the adversary does not. Understanding reality means: We understand the adversary—his locations, intent, strengths, and vulnerabilities We understand the environment and how it will affect both the adversary and friendly operations We understand ourselves—our locations, unit strengths/vulnerabilities, personnel status, maintenance status, training status, etc ISR UNCLASSIFIED

3 Intel, Surveillance, Recon
Intelligence: Intelligence is the product resulting from collection, processing, integration , analysis, evaluation and interpretation of available information; information and knowledge about an adversary obtained through observation. (JP 1-02) Surveillance: The systematic observation of aerospace, surface or subsurface areas, places, persons, or things by visual, aural, electronic, photographic or other means. (JP 1-02) Reconnaissance: A mission undertaken to obtain by visual observation or other detection methods, information about the activities and resources of a enemy or potential enemy, or to secure data concerning the meteorological, hydrographic, or geographic characteristics of a particular area. (JP 1-02)

4 Information Operations
UNCLASSIFIED Information Operations Information Operations (IO): The employment of the core capabilities of electronic warfare, computer network operations, psychological operations, military deception, and operations security, in concert with specified supporting and related capabilities, to affect or defend information and information systems, and to influence decision-making. (FM 3-13) Information Operations (IO): The integrated employment of the core capabilities of electronic warfare, computer network operations, psychological operations, military deception, and operations security, in concert with specified supporting and related capabilities, to influence, disrupt, corrupt or usurp adversarial human and automated decision making while protecting our own. (JP 3-13) As stated before, Army doctrine is consistent and compatible with joint doctrine. The new FM 3-0 adopts the joint definition for IO. UNCLASSIFIED

5 The Key Elements of IO Core Elements of IO :
UNCLASSIFIED The Key Elements of IO Core Elements of IO : Operations Security (OPSEC) Psychological Operations (PSYOP) Military Deception (MD) Electronic Warfare (EW) Computer Network Operations Computer Network Attack (CNA) Computer Network Defense (CND) Computer Network Exploitation (CNE) Lets take a quick look at each of the Core Elements of IO… They are intended to manipulate information UNCLASSIFIED

6 UNCLASSIFIED Operations Security Operations Security is process of identifying essential elements of friendly information (EEFI) and subsequently analyzing friendly actions attendant to military operations and other activities to: Identify those actions that can be observed by adversary intelligence systems. Determine indicators hostile intelligence systems might obtain that could be interpreted or pieced together to derive EEFI time to be useful to adversaries. Select and execute measures that eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level the vulnerabilities of friendly actions to adversary exploitation (FM 3-13) Bottom line, OPSEC is a formal, 5-step process that is about identifying and protecting our Essential Friendly Elements of Information. It is an analytical tool used to protect unclassified information. UNCLASSIFIED

7 Psychological Operations
UNCLASSIFIED Psychological Operations Psychological Operations convey selected information to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately to influence the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. (JP 3-53 / FM ) Remember that one of the key ingredients for a good fight is people. Wouldn’t it be nice if we could influence people to act in ways that are beneficial to us and in ways that are detrimental to our adversary? That’s the purpose of PSYOP. Notice that the definition of PSYOP says that we only conduct PSYOP against foreign targets! Influence the behavior of foreign gov’ts, organizations, groups, individuals! UNCLASSIFIED

8 Deliberately mislead enemy decision-maker!
UNCLASSIFIED Military Deception Military Deception (MD) are actions executed to deliberately mislead adversary military decision makers as to friendly military capabilities, intentions, and operations, thereby causing the adversary to take specific actions (or inactions) that will contribute to the accomplishment of the friendly mission (JP 3-58/FM 3-13) Remember that earlier we said that the goal of IO was to destroy the adversary’s ability to understand reality. If that is the case, what better tool to use than deception? Military Deception is all about causing the adversary decision-maker to misunderstand what is going on so that he makes the wrong decision. That gives us an advantage that we can exploit. Deliberately mislead enemy decision-maker! UNCLASSIFIED

9 UNCLASSIFIED Electronic Warfare Electronic Warfare is military action using electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electro-magnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy (JP 3-51/FM 3-13). The three major subdivisions of EW are: Electronic Protection (EP) Electronic Warfare Support (ES) Electronic Attack (EA) Any modern adversary we face makes extensive use of the electromagnetic spectrum. We obviously depend on the electromagnetic spectrum for communications and radar especially. Since use of the spectrum is so important to conducting coordinated operations, it would make sense that we seek to control the spectrum. We use a lot of communications and radar systems so we have to be able to protect ours and attack the adversary UNCLASSIFIED

10 Computer Network Operations
UNCLASSIFIED Computer Network Operations Computer network attack is to disrupt, deny, degrade, or destroy information resident in computers and computer networks, or the computers and networks themselves (JP 1-02/ FM 3-13). Computer network defense consists of defensive measures to protect and defend information, computers, and networks from disruption, denial, degradation, or destruction (JP 3-51 / FM 3-13). Computer network exploitation (CNE) is enabling operations and intelligence collection to gather data from target or adversary automated information systems or networks. (DODD / FM 3-13) All modern militaries and most adversaries make extensive use of computer networks for communications and information management. We are especially dependent upon our networks. We even declare ourselves to be “network-centric”. Network centricity gives us great flexibility and capability. But it also creates vulnerabilities. The vulnerabilities associated with computer networks extend from the lowest tactical level all the way up to the nation’s critical infrastructures. UNCLASSIFIED

11 Related Activities Related Activities : Public Affairs
UNCLASSIFIED Related Activities Related Activities : Public Affairs Civil Military Operations Defense Support to Public Diplomacy Speaking of PA, PA is one of the three supporting elements. The others are Civil Military Operations and defense support to public diplomacy. These are considered “Related Activities” of IO because they are not intended to influence decision makers. But of course, they have an influential effect by virtue of their activity. Therefore, they must be coordinated with the elements of IO so as to not inadvertently counter the efforts of them and to (hopefully) complement them. UNCLASSIFIED

12 UNCLASSIFIED Public Affairs Public Affairs are those public information, command information, and community relations activities directed toward both the external and internal publics with interest in the Department of Defense. (JP 3-61 / FM 3-13) PA fulfills the Army’s obligation to keep the American public and Army personnel informed UNCLASSIFIED

13 Civil Military Operations
UNCLASSIFIED Civil Military Operations Civil Military Operations establish, maintain, influence, or exploit relations between military forces, governmental and non-governmental civilian organizations and authorities, and the civilian populace in a friendly, neutral, or hostile operational area in order to facilitate military operations, to consolidate and achieve operational US objectives. (FM /JP 3-57) CMO resources are limited. Rational decisions must be made on how to best employ these scarce resources. Since CMO activities have the ultimate purpose of facilitating military operations and to achieve operational US objectives, they need to be fully integrated into IO. The CMO activities undertaken must not be frittered away without contributing to the commander’s overall objectives and they can be extremely influential in persuading both civilian leaders and the general populace to support US goals. UNCLASSIFIED

14 UNCLASSIFIED Combat Camera Combat Camera: The acquisition and utilization of still and motion imagery in support of combat, information, humanitarian, special force, intelligence, reconnaissance, engineering, legal, public affairs, and other operations involving the Military Services JP 3-61, JP 1-02 COMCAM program belongs to Defense Visual Information Directorate which falls under the Assistant Secretary of Defense for PA The COMCAM mission is to provide the OSD, CJCS, the Milt Depts, the COCAM and JTFs with imagery capability ISO operational and planning requirements across the range of military operations COMCAM supports all IO capabilities that use images of US or friendly forces operations, whether to influence an adversary or other TAs or support US Forces and or allies The provide images for PSYOP, MILDEC, PA, and CMO use, but can also be used for BDA/MOE analysis UNCLASSIFIED

15 Measuring Effects Measure of Effectiveness – A criterion used to assess changes in system behavior, capability, or operational environment that is tied to measuring the attainment of an end state, achievement of an objective, or creation of an effect. (JP 3-0) Measure of Performance – (DOD) A criterion to assess friendly actions that is tied to measuring task accomplishment. (JP 3-0) Terrorist Zarqawi lashes out against Muslim clerics for not opposing US offensive operations in Iraq and Afghanistan Post Falluja, Nov 04

16 Why is this important What are those things that we need to do as allies? Coalition operations and IO International Community

17 Summary IO: Integrated employment of capabilities
UNCLASSIFIED Summary IO: Integrated employment of capabilities Core, Supporting, Related Effects Planning IO Objectives Tasks IO Cell The IO planner will be on the front lines of the information war. He/she must use all the elements, supporting elements, and related activities to seize and retain the advantage and initiative in the information environment. Information Operations are critical shaping operations that must be accomplished in order to enable military success in any contemporary operation. UNCLASSIFIED

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