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Planning, Implementing, and Managing Instruction

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1 Planning, Implementing, and Managing Instruction
ESOL Praxis Session 1

2 Praxis Test Content Category Number of Questions
Approximate Percentage of Examination Foundations of Linguistics and Language Learning 1 48 40% Planning, Implementing, and Managing Instruction 2 36 30% Assessment 3 18 15% Cultural and Professional Aspects of the Job 4 Totals 100%

3 Session I, Part I Instructional Theory

4 Total Physical Response (TPR) Natural Approach BICS / CALP / CUP
Objective 1: Knows the distinct characteristics, theoretical foundations, and appropriate use of methods and approaches in second-language learning (e.g. the direct method, Total Physical Response, the Natural Approach) Direct Method Total Physical Response (TPR) Natural Approach BICS / CALP / CUP Zone of proximal development Silent Way Whole Language Approach Suggestopedia Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA) Bottom-up Reading Strategies Language Experience Approach Audiolingual Method Community Language Learning

5 Direct Method (Maximilian Berlitz)
Total L2 immersion, no use of L1 Students learn grammar intuitively; errors are ignored – self-correction encouraged Oral communication skills are built gradually as students become more adept in the L2 Teachers use mime, sketches or pantomime in order to convey the meaning of vocabulary (no L1 translations) Students participate in open-ended response to materials teacher brings to the classroom

6 Total Physical Response – TPR (Asher)
Allows students to participate without forcing a verbal response Particularly helpful for students in the silent period as they get to communicate through physical movement and motion Teacher issues commands that are carried out by the students Simon Says is another effective way to reinforce vocabulary

7 Natural Approach (Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell)
Introduces vocabulary to students through different experiences (images, games, etc.) Focuses on the study of language through natural means, particularly through casual conversations and communication Places less importance on the study of grammar; grammar not explicitly taught Language output is not forced, but allowed to emerge spontaneously after students have been exposed to comprehensible input.

8 Jim Cummins BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills)
Language skills necessary for social situations Day-to-day language needed to interact socially with others ELLs use BIC skills while on the playground, in the lunch room, etc. Social interactions are context embedded and occur in a meaningful social context. BIC skills are not very demanding cognitively as the language required is not specialized. BICS usually develop within six months to two years after arrival in the U.S. Problems occur when teachers and administrators mistake a student’s social language proficiency for evidence that the student has also achieved Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP).

9 Jim Cummins cont. CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency)
Academic language skills necessary to succeed in school. Includes listening, speaking, reading and writing about subject area content material. In addition to vocabulary, CALP includes the abilities to compare, classify, synthesize, evaluate and infer. As students grow, the context of academic tasks become reduced. The language also becomes more demanding cognitively. New ideas, concepts and vocabulary are presented to the student at the same time. CALP takes significantly longer than BICS to develop – typically between 5-7 years. However, research shows that if a child has no prior school or has no support in native language development, it may take seven to ten years for ELLs to catch up with their peers.

10 Jim Cummins cont. CUP (Common Underlying Proficiency)
L1 and L2 processes do not function independently of each other; they each operate from the same system Previous schooling, academic knowledge and literacy skills in L! are strong determiners for proficiency in L2

11 Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Vygotsky developed this theory. While Vygotsky never used this word, ZPD is synonymous with scaffolding. This theory involves teaching the child at a level directly above their independent level.

12 Additional Approaches
Silent Way Teacher modeling/talk, reinforcement through repetition/signals, seldom content-based Whole Language Approach (Goodman, Goodman and Hood) Emphasis on language learning in all four domains (listening, speaking, reading, writing) through an integrated approach Suggestopedia Relaxed physical setting, minimal error correction, use of L1 for explanations, not necessarily content-based

13 Cognitive Academic Language Learning (CALLA)
Integrates instruction in priority topics from the content curriculum Focuses on development of the language skills needed for learning in school; specifically focuses on CALP development in L1 and L2 as related to content areas Provides explicit instruction in using learning strategies for academic tasks Provides evelopmentally appropriate language instruction Focuses on activating prior knowledge Provides explicit instruction in the following learning strategies: Metacognitive Cognitive Social/Affective Metacognitive – thinking about your thinking; awareness of strategies to use – explicitly teaches strategies for language acquisition; students use and understand purpose for the strategies Cognitive – thinking inside my head Social / Affective – working together to acquire language more fluidly; reduce affective filter to increase language learning

14 Bottom Up Reading Strategies
Bottom-up strategies incorporate the lower-level processes that teach students to construct meaning from the most basic units of language, including letters, letter clusters and words. In essence, a student analyzes the smallest unit of meaning in a bottom-up strategy. Contrasts with top-down strategies, which focus on generating meaning from background knowledge, assumptions, asking questions, previewing text, etc. ELLs need explicit instruction in low-level strategies that native English-speaking readers have already been taught and use for efficient reading. ELLs need to acquire the knowledge base of English phonemes.

15 Language Experience Approach
LEA is a whole language approach that promotes reading and writing through the use of personal experiences and oral language. Beginning literacy learners relate their experiences to a teacher or aide, who transcribes them. The transcriptions are then used as the basis for other reading and writing activities. First developed for Maori-speaking and native-English-speaking children and has been used with all ages, through adulthood.

16 Audiolingual Method Objectives: accurate pronunciation and grammar, the ability to respond quickly and accurately in speech situations, and knowledge of sufficient vocabulary to use with grammar patterns Main activities: reading aloud dialogues, repetition of model sentences, drilling activities. Classroom activities focus on the correct imitation of the teacher by the students. No explicit grammar instruction. Target language is the only language used in the classroom. Aims to develop listening and speaking skills; uses visual aides in vocabulary teaching

17 Community Language Learning
Learners in a circle around a recording device. Teacher outside the circle. Learner says what they want to say (in L1) Teacher translates to target language, learner records it. Next student says what they want to say. When have a chunk of conversation, play back and listen. Write conversation on board. Learners ask questions about the language, you answer. Learners use language on board to record a new conversation. Language that emerges becomes the focus for further practice and tasks. The focus: conversational language; learning within a community, while conversing.

18 Objective 2: Knows how to implement a variety of instructional delivery models (e.g. push in, pull out, sheltered instruction) Bilingual Programs Transitional Bilingual Program Maintenance / Developmental / Late-Exit Bilingual Program Dual language / dual immersion / two way immersion bilingual program ESL Immersion Programs ESL pullout approaches: Grammar-based ESL Communication-based ESL Content-based ESL Structured English immersion Submersion with primary language support ESL push-in model Sheltered ESL instruction Canadian French immersion Indigenous language immersion English for Special Purposes

19 The Short Bridge to English: Transitional Bilingual Program
Typically begins in elementary school by using students’ L1 as the language of instruction Goals of a transitional bilingual program: Transition from L1 to L2 as quickly as possible, typically within 1-2 years Develop L2 academic and linguistic competence The goal of a transitional bilingual program is NOT necessarily to develop true bilingualism or biliteracy as the program moves as quickly as possible toward monolingual teaching and learning.

20 The Long Bridge to English: Maintenance Bilingual Program
Also known as Developmental or Late-Exit Bilingual Program Native language instruction continues after English proficiency is attained. All students in this classroom are ELLs and their L1 is the same. Goals of the Maintenance Bilingual Program: Maintain and enhance L1 abilities Develop English language proficiency and literacy Bilingualism and biliteracy

21 Dual Language Bilingual Program
Also known as Dual Immersion and Two-Way Immersion Programs 2 languages taught throughout school day Each language taught 50% of the day Native speakers of both languages are in the dual language classroom Ideally about half of the class would be a native speaker of English and the other half of the class would be a native speaker of the 2nd language taught (the goal is for English and non-English speakers to become biingual and biliterate)

22 Pull-Out Model Students integrated into mainstream, English-only classroom in other subjects with no special assistance Students pulled out for ESL instruction aimed at developing English grammar, vocabulary and communication skills, not academic content OR pulled out for content ESL, which includes academic content, vocabulary and concepts Goal: fluency in English

23 Pull-Out Approaches Grammatical/Grammar-Based Communication-Based
Teacher-centered Emphasis on the rules and structure of language Communication-Based Student-centered Emphasis on communication and use of language in meaningful contexts Emphasis on comprehensible input to foster communication and lower anxiety Content-Based Interaction in English that develops language skills and prepares ELLs to study grade-level content material Focus on language, but with graded introduction to content areas, vocabulary and basic concepts

24 Structured English Immersion (SEI)
All students in the classroom are ELLs English is the language of instruction It is also the main content - the focus is on the rules and application of the English language. Academic content is secondary The idea is to provide explicit, direct instruction about the English language SEI programs are usually designed to last one academic year Goal: fluency in English Sheltered – focuses on content and adjust language to teach the content, to make accessible to students

25 Submersion with L1 Support
Students are mainstreamed Uses L1 to support English language content instruction Develops very limited literacy skills in L1 Bilingual teachers / aides tutor small groups of students by reviewing particular lessons covered in mainstream classes, using students’ L1 Goal: fluency in English

26 Push-In Model The ESL teacher works within the mainstream classroom. There are two push-in options: Co-teaching (the ESL and mainstream teacher plan and teach together) Small group instruction (during independent work time, the ESL teacher pulls a small group of learners to a spot within the classroom to work on skills) Goal: fluency in English

27 Immersion programs with the goal of bilingualism
Canadian French immersion targets language majority students (students whose L1 is English). It is considered an immersion program because students are immersed in the L2 (French) for the first 2 years before L1 instruction in English begins. Indigenous language immersion: the goal is bilingualism with a focus on language minority students (students who speak endangered indigenous languages such as Navajo).

28 English for Special Purposes
Targeted instruction in English in content-specific areas: Medical vocabulary Teaching vocabulary Mechanical / Technical vocabulary

29 Sheltered Language Immersion
All students in the classroom are ELLs (L1 may be the same for all students or there may be many different L1s in the class) – students are at around the same language proficiency level Content instruction is in English, but the language used is adjusted to match the proficiency level of students in the classroom Focus is on making content comprehensible and accessible to ELLs No native language support or development Goal: fluency in English

30 Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol - SIOP
There are eight components to SIOP Preparation (language and content objectives) Building Background Comprehensible Input (Krashen – i + 1) Strategies Interaction Practice/Application Lesson Delivery Review/Assessment Handout re SIOP

31 Krashen’s Input Hypothesis
This hypothesis is related to acquisition, not learning. Krashen theorizes that people acquire language best by being exposed to materials that are slightly beyond their current level of competence. He uses the phrase comprehensible input (i +1) to explain this. The i stands for the student’s current level of language input and the +1 for their next stage of language acquisition. As students are not necessarily on the same level at all times, Krashen suggests that natural communicative input is key to ensuring that each learner is exposed to some language input (i +1) that is appropriate for his/her current stage of acquisition. This information was providing in the first session, but is provided here again, for refresher purposes (no need to actually go over the slide, just point it out)

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