3Gluteus Maximus Number-two Origin-posterior aspect of dorsal ilium posterior to posterior gluteal lineInsertions-primarily in fascia lata at the illiotibial band, also in the gluteal tuberosity on posterior femoral sideAction-major extension of hip joint, assists in laterally rotating the thighInnervation-inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1, S2)Other facts- largest of the gluteal muscle, allows people to walk upright
5Gluteus Medius Number-two Origin-dorsal ilium inferior to iliac crest Insertion-lateral and superior surfaces of greater trochanterAction-major abductor of thighInnervation- superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1)Other facts- as you walk the gluteus medius muscles supports full upper body weight and every one pound of extra body weight adds two pounds to the workload, also stabilizes the hips
9Origin: Entire anterior surface of the subscapularis fossa. Insertion: the lesser tuberosity of humerus and capsule of shoulder joint.Action: rotates the head of the humerus medially(internal rotation); when the arm is raised, it draws the humerus forward and downward.Innervation: Subscapular nerve (C5,C6)
11Origin- superolateral surfaces of upper 8 or 9 ribs at the side of chest Insertion- Vertebral border of scapulaInnervation – Long Thoracic Nerve (C5,C6,C7)
12GastrocnemisOrigin: just superior to articular surfaces of the lateral and medial condyles of the femur.Insertion: posterior calcaneus via the Achilles TendonAction: plantar flexes the foot, and it also flexes the knee.Innervation: tibial nerve (S1 - S2)
13Soleus Origin: posterior superior fibula and tibia Insertion: Posterior calcaneous via Achilles TendonAction: plantar flexion.Innervation:tibial nerve, (L5-S2)Soleus
15Origin Long Head- From infraglenoid tuberosity of the scapula Lateral Head- From posterior and lateral surface of the HumerusMedial Head- From lower posterior surface of the HumerusInsertion: Upper posterior surface of the olecranon and the deep forearm fasciaAction: extension of the forearm, stabilize shouldersInnervation: radial nerve
17Origin: Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1- C4 Insertion: Upper part of the medial border of scapulaAction: Raises medial border of scapulaInnervation: Anterior primary rami of C3 and C4 and dorsal scapular nerve (C5)
18Coracobrachialis Origin: Coracoid process of scapula. Insertion: Mid-medial surface of humerus.Action: Flexes and adducts arm at shoulders.Innervation: musculoskeletal nerve and partly by the radial nerve.
19DeltoidOrigin: anterior surface of lateral clavicle, acromion process and spine of scapula.Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of humerusAction: flexes & medially rotation, abductionInnervation: Axillary nerve
24Origin: anterior, distal half of the humerus Insertion: Coroniod process and tuberosity of ulna. Function: Flexes forearm at the elbow. Innervation: Musculocutaneous nerve
25Internal Abdominal Oblique Origin: anterior iliac crest, lateral half of inguinal ligament, and thoracolumbar fasciaInsertion: costal cartilages of ribs 8-12: abdominal aponeurosis to linea albaInnervation: lower intercostal nerves, as well as the iliohypogastric nerve and the ilioinguinal nerveAction: flexes, rotates and laterally flexes torso at lower thoracic and upper lumbar vertebral levels, compresses abdomen
26External Abdominal Oblique Origin: external surfaces of ribs 5-12Insertion: anterior iliac crest and abdominal aponeurosis to linea albaActions: flexes vertebral column (draws thorax downward), rotates vertebral column (torso), laterally flexes vertebral column (torso), compress abdomen.Innervation: The external oblique muscle is innervated by ventral branches of the lower 6 intercostal (thoracoabdominal) nerves and the subcostal nerve on each side.
27Rhomboideus Major Origin: Spinous process of T2-T5 vertebrae. Insertion: Medial border of scapula inferior to spine of scapula.Actions: Retracts and elevates the medial border of scapula while it downwardly rotates the lateral angle.Innervation: Dorsal scapular nerve (C5).
28External Anal Sphincter Origin: perineal body or central tendinous point of the perineumInsertion: encircles the anal canal; superficial fibers attach to coccyx.Action: constricts the anal canalInnervation: inferior rectal nerves (from the pudendal nerve)
29Rectus Femoris Origin: anterior inferior iliac spine Insertion: Tibial Tuberosity via patellar tendon, patella and patellar ligament.Action: Extends leg at knee, flexes thigh at hipInnervation: Femoral nerve (L2-L3)
30Biceps Femoris Origin: Ischial Tuberosity Insertion: Head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia.Action: : Extends femur, flexes knee, laterally rotates leg if knee is flexedInnervation: Tibial part of sciatic nerve (L5,S1,S2)
33Buccinator Origin: Alveolar processes of maxilla and mandible Insertion: Orbicularis Oris Function: Compresses cheek into the teeth for chewing. Innervation: Deep buccal branches of the facial nerve (C.N. VII)
35Zygomaticus Origin: Anterior surface of zygomatic bone Insertion: Fascia and fibers of orbicularis oris at angle of mouth Function: Elevates and draws angle of mouth laterally Innervation: zygomatic and buccal branches of the facial nerve (VII)
36Adductor Longus Origin: Insertion: middle third of the linea aspera. Function: adduct and laterally rotate the femur.Innervation: obturator nerve ( )
38Adductor Magnus Origin: Insertion: Adductor tubercle on the medial condyle of the femur and linea asperaAction: Medial rotator when the leg is rotated outwards and flexed, extends the hip jointInnervation: posterior division of the obturator nerve ( ) and tibial nerve.
41Pronator Teres Origin: Medial Epicondyle (Common Flexor Tendon) and Coronoid Process of UlnaInsertion: Middle of the lateral surface of the shaft ofthe radius.Function– Pronation and flexion of the forearmInnervation: Median Nerve
43Pronator Quadratus Origin: Medial, anterior surface of the Ulna Insertion: Lateral, anterior surface of the RadiusFunction:Innervation: Median Nerve (Anterior interosseous Nerve)
44Hamstrings Muscle Group There are 2 groups of Hamstring Muscles (3 muscles in each leg)They are located on the posterior thigh.Semitendinosus:Origin: upper in quadrant of posterior surface of ischial tuberosityInsertion: Upper medial shaft of tibia below gracilisFunction/Action: Flexes and medially rotates knee. Extends hipNerve Supply: Tibial portion of sciatic nerve.Semimembranosus:Origin: upper outer quadrant of posterior surface of ischial tuberosityInsertion: medial condyle of tibia below articular margin, fascia over popliteus and oblique popliteal ligamentNerve Supply: Tibial portion of sciatic nerve (L5, S1)
45Biceps FemorisOrigin: Long head; upper inner quadrant of posterior surface of ischial tuberosity. Short head; middle third of linea aspera, lateral supracondylar ridge of femur. Insertion: Styloid process of head of fibula. Lateral collateral ligament and lateral tibial condyle. Action: Flexes and laterally rotates knee. Long head extends hip. Nerve Supply: Long head; tibial portion of sciatic nerve. Short head; common peroneal portion of sciatic nerve (both L5, S1)
47Quadriceps Muscle Group 2 groups of Quadricep Muscles ( 4 muscles in each leg)They cover the front and sides of the thigh.Rectus Femoris:Origin: Straight head; anterior inferior iliac spine. Reflected head; ilium above acetabulum.Insertion: Quadriceps tendon to patella, via ligamentum patellae into tubercle of tibia.Function/Action: Extends leg at knee. Flexes thigh at hip.Nerve Supply: Posterior division of femoral nerve (L3, 4)Vastus Lateralis (Externus):Origin: Upper intertrochanteric line, base of greater trochanter, lateral linea aspera, lateral supracondylar ridge and lateral intermuscular septum.Insertion: Lateral quadriceps tendon to patella, via ligamentum patellae into tubercle of tibia.Function/Action: Extends knee.
48Quadriceps continued... Vastus Intermedius: Origin: Anterior and lateral shaft of femur.Insertion: Quadriceps tendon to patella, via ligamentum patellae into tubercle of tibia.Function/Action: Extends kneeNerve Supply: Posterior division of femoral nerve (L3,4)Vastus Medialis (Internus):Origin: Lower intertrochanteric line, spiral line, medial linea aspera and medial intermuscular septum.Insertion: Medial quadriceps tendon to patella and directly into medial patella, via ligamentum patellae into tubercle of tibia.Function/Action: Extends knee, Stabilizes patella.Nerve Supply: Posterior division of femoral nerve (L3, 4)
52Orbicularis OrisORIGIN - Near midline on anterior surface of maxillaand mandibleINSERTION - Mucous membrane of margin of lips andraphe with buccinator at modiolusACTION - Narrows orifice of mouth, purses lips andpuckers lip edgesNERVE -
542 1 UNIQUE INFORMATION # ORBICULARIS OCULI -Facial paralysis affects the orbicularis oculi muscle.-The inability to close the eye causes it to dry out, resulting in pain or blindness.2ORBICULARIS ORIS-In common language, the orbicularis oris is often referred to as "the kissing muscle."1
55Frontalis* There is only 1 Frontalis muscle in the human body. * The Frontalis is located across the top of the Frontal Bone. * The Frontalis are joined together above the root of the nose and to the top of The Frontal Bone.
56Frontalis Continued... Innervation: Facial nerve (CN VII) * Function: Facial expressions such as lifting skin of forehead and eyebrows.
57Occipitalis There is only one Occipitalis muscle in the human body. The Occipitalis is locatedAlong the back of the headAcross the Occipital Bone.The Occipitalis is joinedTogether by tendinous fiberRunning from the OccipitalBone.
59Peroneus Longus (Fibularis Longus) How Many: 2Origin: Upper two thirds of lateral shaft of fibulaInsertion: Tarsal and metatarsal bonesAction: Plantar flexion and eversion of foot; also supports archInnervation: Superficial peroneal nerve (L5, S1, S2)
60Peroneus Tertius (Fibularis Tertius) How Many: 2Origin: Anterior surface of fibulaInsertion: Dorsal surface of the base of the 5th metatarsalAction: Dorsiflexion and eversion of footInnervation: Deep peroneal nerve (L5, S1)
62Information...Origin: Anterior - upper half of lateral shaft of tibia and interosseous membrane. Posterior – Upper half of posterior shaft of tibia and upper half of fibula between medial nerve crest and interosseous border, and interosseous membrane.Insertion: Anterior – Inferomedial aspect of medical cuneiform and base of 1st metatarsal. Posterior – Tuberosity of navicular bone and all tarsal bones (except talus) and spring ligament.Action: Anterior – Extends and inverts foot at ankle & holds up medial longitudinal arch of foot. Posterior – Plantar flexes and inverts foot & supports medial longitudinal arch of foot.
66Latissimus DorsiOrigin: Spinous process of vertebrae T7-L5, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, inferior 3 or 4 ribs and inferior angle of scapulaInsertion : Floor of the intertubercular groove of the humerus.Action: to abduct or extend and internally rotate the arm.Nerve supply: Thoracodorsal nerve.‘The Swimmer’s Muscle’
67TrapeziousOrigin: external occipital protuberance, nuchal ligament, medial superior nuchal line, spinous process of vertebrae C7-T12.)Insertion: Posterior border of the lateral third of the clavicle, acromion process and spine of scapula.Action: rotation, retraction , elevation and depression of scapula.Nerve supply: Accessory nerve (CN XI), cervical spinal nerves C3 & C4
82TemporalisOrigin: Temporal fossa between inferior temporal line (of the parietal bone) and infratemporal crest.Insertion: Coronoid process of the mandible and anterior ramus of the mandible.Action: Elevates mandible (closes jaw) and retracts mandible (horizontal fibers of posterior part of muscle).Nerve Supply: Mandibular division of Trigeminal nerve(CN V).
84Masseter Origin: superficial portion - zygomatic bone, deep - zygomatic arch.Insertion: ramus of the mandibleAction: elevation of mandible (chew food)Nerve Supply: masseteric nerve of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V)