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Principle Skeletal Muscles 1 Muscles of Facial Expression, Muscles that Move the Mandible and Muscles that Move the Eyeballs.

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Presentation on theme: "Principle Skeletal Muscles 1 Muscles of Facial Expression, Muscles that Move the Mandible and Muscles that Move the Eyeballs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principle Skeletal Muscles 1 Muscles of Facial Expression, Muscles that Move the Mandible and Muscles that Move the Eyeballs

2 Muscles of Facial Expression The muscles of facial expression provide humans with the ability to express a wide variety of emotions. The muscles themselves lie within the layers of superficial fascia. The origins are generally in the fascia or bones of the skull and insertions into the skin of the face

3 Occipitofrontalis Front and Occipital Bellies Front Belly:  Origin – Epicranial Aponeurosis  Insertion – Skin superior to orbit  Action – Draws scalp forward, raises eyebrows and wrinkles skin of forehead horizontally Occipital Belly  Origin – Occipital and Temporal Bones  Insertion – Epicranial Aponeurosis  Action – Draws scalp backwards

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5 Orbicularis Oris Origin – muscle fibers surrounding opening of mouth Insertion – Skin at corner of mouth Action – Closes and protrudes lips, compresses lips against teeth and shapes lips during speech

6 Zygomaticus Major Origin – zygomatic bone Insertion – Skin at angle of mouth and orbicularis oris Action – Draws corners of mouth outward and upward as in smiling

7 Buccinator Origin – Maxilla and Mandible Insertion – Orbicularis Oris Action – presses cheeks against teeth and lips, as in whistling; draws corner of mouth laterally, assists in chewing be keeping food between teeth

8 Platysma Origin – Fascia over deltoid and pectoralis major muscles Insertion – Mandible, muscles around mouth and skin of lower face Action – Draws outer part of lower lip downward and backward as in pouting; depresses mandible

9 Orbicularis Oculi Origin – Medial wall of orbit Insertion – Circular path around orbit Action – Closes eye; wrinkles forehead vertically

10 Levator Palpebrae Superioris Origin – Roof of Orbit Insertion – Skin of upper eyelid Action - Opens Eye

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12 Muscles that Move the Mandible Also known as muscles of mastication because they are used for biting and chewing. These muscles also assist in speech.

13 Masseter Origin – Maxilla and Zygomatic Arch Insertion – Mandible Action – Elevates and retracts mandible

14 Temporalis Origin – Temporal Bone Insertion – Mandible Action – Elevates and retracts mandible

15 Medial Pterigoid Origin – Sphenoid bone and maxilla Insertion – Mandible Action – elevates and protracts mandible and moves mandible from side to side

16 Lateral Pterygoid Origin – Sphenoid Bone Insertion – TMJ Action – Protracts mandible, depresses mandible and moves mandible from side to side

17 Muscles that Move the Eyeballs Movement of the eyeballs are controlled by three pairs of extrinsic muscles. These are among the fastest contracting and most precisely controlled skeletal muscles of the body.

18 Superior Rectus/Inferior Rectus Superior:  Origin – Tendinous ring attached to bony orbit around the optic foramen  Insertion – Superior and central part of the eyeball  Action – Moves eyeball upward and medially and rotates its medially Inferior:  Origin - Tendinous ring attached to bony orbit around the optic foramen  Insertion – Inferior and central part of the eyeball  Action – Moves eyeball downward and medially and rotates it laterally

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20 Lateral/Medial Rectus Lateral:  Origin – Tendinous ring attached to bony orbit around the optic foramen  Insertion – Lateral Side of Eyeball  Action – Moves eyeball laterally Medial:  Origin – Tendinous ring attached to bony orbit around the optic foramen  Insertion – Medial Side of Eyeball  Action – Moves eyeball medially

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22 Superior/Inferior Oblique Superior:  Origin – Tendinous ring attached to bony orbit around the optic foramen  Insertion – Eyeball between superior and lateral recti  Action – moves eyeball downward, laterally and rotates medially Inferior:  Origin – Maxilla  Insertion – eyeball between inferior and lateral recti  Action – moves eyeball upward and laterally and rotates it laterally

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28 Cadaver – face dissection

29 Principle Skeletal Muscles 2 Muscles that act on the abdominal wall, muscles used in breathing and muscles that move the pectoral girdle

30 The anterior abdominal wall is composed of skin, fascia and 4 pairs of muscles.  Tendinous Intersections – bands of connective tissue that divides the rectus abdominis  Linea Alba – tough fibrous band extending from xiphoid process to pubic symphysis MUSCLES THAT ACT ON THE ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL

31 Origin – Pubis and Pubic Symphysis Insertion – Costal Cartilage and Xiphoid Process Action – Flexes vertebral column and compresses abdomen Rectus Abdominis

32 Tendinous Intersections Linea Alba

33 Origin – Lower 8 ribs Insertion – Crest of Ilium and Linea Alba Action – Compresses abdomen, flexes vertebral column. Singularly rotates vertebral column External Oblique

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35 Origin – Ilium, inguinal ligament Insertion – Costal Cartilage and linea alba Action - Compresses abdomen, flexes vertebral column. Singularly rotates vertebral column Internal Oblique

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37 Origin – Ilium, inguinal ligament, lumbar fascia, and costal cartilage Insertion – Xiphoid Process, linea alba and pubis Action – Compress Abdomen Transverse Abdominis

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40 These muscles alter the size of the thoracic cavity so that breathing can occur. Inhalation occurs when the thoracic cavity increases in size and exhalation occurs when the thoracic cavity decreases in size Muscles Used in Breathing

41 Origin – xiphoid process, costal cartilage and lumbar vertebrae Insertion – central tendon Action – increases the vertical dimension of the thoracic cavity resulting in inhalation. Diaphragm

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43 Origin – ribs Insertion – ribs Action:  External – increases the anteroposterior and lateral dimensions of thoracic cage resulting in inhalation  Internal – decreases the antroposterior and lateral dimensions resulting in forceful exhalation External and Internal Intercostals

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45 These muscles are divided into anterior (pectoralis minor and serratus anterior) and posterior (trapezius, levator scapulae and rhomboid major) thoracic muscles based on their location. The main action of the muscles is to hold the scapula in place so that is can function as a stable origin for the muscles that move the humerus Muscles that Move the Pectoral Girdle

46 Origin – Ribs 3-5 Insertion – Scapula Action – depresses scapula, moves it laterally and forward Pectoralis minor

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48 Origin – Upper 8 or 9 ribs Insertion – Scapula Action – Moves scapula laterally and forward. AKA: “the boxer’s muscle” because it is important in horizontal arm movements like punching. Serratus Anterior

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50 Origin – occipital bone, spines of C7 and thoracic vertebrae Insertion – clavicle and scapula Action – Elevates clavicle, moves scapula medially Trapezius

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52 Origin – C1 – C5 Insertion – Scapula Action – elevates scapula Levator Scapulae

53 Origin – Spines of T2-T5 Insertion – Scapula Action – Elevates scapula, moves it medially Rhomboid Major

54 Principle Skeletal Muscles 3 Muscles that move the Vertebral Column, Muscles that move the femur, tibia, fibula foot and toes

55 Erector Spinae Origin – All ribs, cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae Insertion – Occipital Bone, ribs and vertebrae Action – Extends head; extends and laterally flexes vertebral column

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57 STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID!!! Origin – sternum and clavicle Insertion – Mastoid process of temporal bone Action – flex cervical spine or rotate head

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59 Quadratus Lumborum Origin – Ilium Insertion – 12 th rib and upper 4 lumbar vertebrae Action – Extend lumbar spine when both are contracted. Flexes lumbar spine when one is contracted

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61 Psoas Major Origin – Lumbar Vertebrae Insertion – Femur Action – Flexes and rotates thigh laterally at the hip

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63 Iliacus Origin – Ilium Insertion – Femur Action – Flexes and rotates thigh laterally at hip

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65 Gluteal Muscles Gluteus Maximus, Minimus and Medius  Origin – Ilium  Insertion – Femur  Actions – Maximus: Extends and rotates thigh laterally at hip Medius and Minimus – Abducts and rotates thigh medially at hip

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67 Tensor Fasciae Latae Origin – Ilium Insertion – Tibia Action – Flexes and abducts the thigh at the hip

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69 Adductor Longus Origin – Pubis and Pubic Symphysis Insertion – Femur Action – Adducts, medially rotates and flexes thigh at hip

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71 Adductor Magnus Origin - Pubis and Ischium Insertion – Femur Action – Adducts, flexes, medially rotates and extends thigh

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73 Piriformus Origin – Sacrum Insertion – Femur Action – Rotates thigh laterally

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75 Gracilis Origin – Pubic Symphysis Insertion – Tibia Action – Adducts and medially rotates thigh at hip and flexes knee

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77 Quadriceps Femoris Composed of 4 parts:  Rectus Femorus  Vastus Lateralis  Vastus Medialis  Vastus Intermedius Action – Extend leg at knee joint

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79 Sartorius Origin – Ilium Insertion – Tibia Action – Flexes leg at knee, abducts and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint (like corssing legs)

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81 Hamstrings Group of 3 muscles:  Biceps Femoris  Semitendinosus  Semimembranosus Action – flexes leg at knee, extends thigh at hip

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83 Tibialis Anterior Origin – Tibia Insertion – 1 st metatarsal and 1 st cuniform (tarsal) Action – dorsiflex and invert foot

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85 Peroneus Longus Origin – Fibula and Tibia Insertion – 1 st metatarsal and 1 st cuniform Action – Plantar flexes and everts foot

86 Gastrocnemius Origin – Femur Insertion – Calcaneus Action – Plantar Flexion; flexes leg at knee

87 Soleus Origin – Fibula and Tibia Insertion – Calcaneus Action – Plantar Flexion

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89 Flexor Digitorum Longus Origin – Tibia Insertion – Distal Phalanges Action – Flexes toes

90 Principle Skeletal Muscles Upper Extremity

91 Biceps brachii Origin – Scapula Insertion – Radius Action – Flexes and supinates forearm at elbow

92 Brachialis Origin – Humerus Insertion – Ulna Action – Flexes forearm at elbow joint

93 Brachioradialis Origin – Humerus Insertion – Radius Action – Flexes forearm at elbow joint

94 Triceps Brachii Origin – Scapula and Humerus Insertion – Ulna Action – Extends forearm at elbow joint

95 Supinator Origin – Humerus and Ulna Insertion – Radius Action – Supinates Forearm

96 Pronator teres Origin – Humerus and Ulna Insertion – Radius Action – Pronates Forearm

97 Pronator Quadratus Origin –Ulna Insertion – Radius Action – Pronates Forearm

98 Flexors Origins – Humerus or Humerus and Ulna Insertions – Carpals, metacarpals and phalanges Actions – Flexes wrist, hands and fingers

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100 Extensors Origins – Humerus or Humerus and Ulna Insertions – Metacarpals and phalanges Actions – Extends, adducts and abducts wrist, hands and fingers

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102 Pectoralis Major Origin – Clavicle, sternum and 6 th & 7 th ribs Insertion – Humerus Action – Adducts and rotates arm medially

103 Pectoralis Minor Origin – 3 rd – 5 th ribs Insertion – scapula Action – depresses scapula

104 Latissimus Dorsi Origin – Spines of lower vertebrae Insertion – Humerus Action – Extends, adducts and rotates arm at shoulder

105 Deltoid Origin – Clavicle and scapula Insertion – Humerus Action – Abducts, flexes, extends and rotates arm at shoulder

106 Subscapularis Origin –Scapula Insertion – Humerus Action – Rotates arm medially

107 Coracobrachialis Origin –Scapula Insertion – Humerus Action – flexes and adducts arm at shoulder

108 Serratus Anterior Origin – Upper 8 ribs Insertion – Scapula Action – Moves scapula laterally and forward (horizontal arm movement)

109 Trapezius Origin – Occipital Bone and spines of thoracic vertebrae Insertion – Clavicle and Scapula Action – Elevates clavicle, moves scapula medially, extends head

110 Levator Scapulae Origin – Upper 4 or 5 cervical vertebrae Insertion – Scapula Action – elevates scapula


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