Presentation on theme: "GET YOUR NOTES OUT AND GIVE THEM THE SECTION TITLE AND BIG IDEA. 5.2 FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE Big Idea: Internal struggles of the Roman Empire will eventually."— Presentation transcript:
GET YOUR NOTES OUT AND GIVE THEM THE SECTION TITLE AND BIG IDEA. 5.2 FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE Big Idea: Internal struggles of the Roman Empire will eventually lead to civil wars and increased military power. empire-or-republic-orwhich-was-it-crash- course-world-history-10teachem.com/learn/2730/the-roman- empire-or-republic-orwhich-was-it-crash- course-world-history-10
Growing unrest End of Roman Republic-Senate (real governing body) – Wealthy aristocratic land owners rule government. – Small farmer –lose land, move to city. – Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus urged council of plebeians to pass land reform bills (gov. take back public land.) Led to unrest -brothers executed. New Role of the Army – Marius (general/consul) recruit army new way( landless poor -promised land if loyal to generals). Army not under gov. control-great power in individual generals. – Lucius Sulla (controlled army (Asia Minor) /Plebs wanted Marius to control army. – Sulla won -restored power to Senate. Analyze the down fall to promising land to the landless poor?
1 st Triumvirate – 50 yrs of civil war>victors ( Crassus, Pompey, & Julius Caesar) – Create triumvirate (gov.t by 3 ppl-equal power). Crassus killed in battle. Left Caesar & Pompey (Senate supported). Senate wants Caesar to give up power-Caesar says no-enters Italy.Civil war btw Caesar &Pompey (loser). Caesar = dictator (absolute ruler). – land >poor – increased Senate (900)=power weakened. – citizenship to supporters – Solar calendar. More important than Senate -assassinated 44 B.C. 2 nd Triumvirate Octavian, Antony, &Lepidus(kicked out) – Octavian vs. Antony = Battle (Actium)– Antony’s ally Cleopatra (Egypt). Octavian wins- Republic gone= Age of Augustus. Summarize how Caesar weaken the power of the Senate?
Augustus (Octavian) new political system -emperor select successors from natural or adopted family. – Next 4 emperors from his family: Tiberuis, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. More power but also more corrupt. Nero had people killed to increase his power. – He chose governors of provinces- not senate. Followed by good emperors: (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, & Marcus Aurelius) =Pax Romana (Roman peace). – Power expands & Senate decreases. – New social & building programs. Emperors & the Early Empire
Empire Expands – Harder to govern. Emperor Hadrian -Built Hadrian’s wall -protect northern borders of Britain from northern barbarians. – At height greatest empire ever seen. Emperors provide unity. – Accepted culture of conquered ppl-granted citizenship – Cities spread Roman culture-( Greco-Roman Culture) » Latin spread -most important language in west. Economy and Society in Early Empire – Trade – went to China. – Farming chief occupation. Create Latifundia (large estates) – Big space btw rich &poor in Roman society. Explain the separation between the rich and the poor.
Section 5-2 Review True or False Latin was the language of the west? True Most Romans also spoke Greek? False Greek was the language of the east? True Roman and Greek culture mixed? True
Section 5-2 Review Period of peace and prosperity beginning in the early 2 nd century? Pax Romana Government by three people with equal power Triumvirate Imperator was the what? Commander in chief First Roman emperor Octavian Augustus’s new political system allowed emperors to chose what? Their successors
Section 5-2 Review Hadrian’s Wall was a defense against who? The Scots Military unit of about 5,000 troops Legion Absolute ruler Dictator Latifundia were what? Large, landed estates in Italy