Presentation on theme: "URBANIZATION AND THE POOR: PERSPECTIVES FROM THE INDUSTRIALIZED WEST"— Presentation transcript:
1URBANIZATION AND THE POOR: PERSPECTIVES FROM THE INDUSTRIALIZED WEST UPA Package 3, Module 1URBANIZATION AND THE POOR: PERSPECTIVES FROM THE INDUSTRIALIZED WEST
2Urbanization Process General urbanization model Concepts of urban, urbanization, cityOrigin and growth of pre-industrial citiesWestern experience in urbanizationPre-industrial period: mercantilismIndustrialization and urbanizationPost industrial urbanization
3Socio-spatial Structuring of Cities and its Impact on the Poor Mercantilist port cities and mill townsFull-scale industrialization and the formation of slumsPost-industrial restructuring and further marginalization of the poor
4Approaches to Housing the Urban Poor Co-location of workplace and residence in the mercantilist cityPrivately provided company housingPublic housinggarden citiesnew towns
5Urbanization Urbanization Defined Process whereby a place becomes urban, i.e., it ceases to be rural, experiences a large concentration of population that is changing from rural to urban way of life. (G. Chadwick)Proportion of the total population concentrated in urban settlements. (P.M. Hauser)
6Urban Place or City (G. Sjoberg) As contrasted to a rural community or village, is characterized bylarger sizeGreater densityHeterogenity and presence of significant number of full time specialists, literate groups, and inhabitants engaged in non-agricultural activities
7Urban Place or City (T.A. Hartshorn) A concentration of people with a distinctive way of life in terms of employment patterns and lifestyles;With a high degree of specialized land uses;Has a wide variety of social, economic and political institutions that coordinate the use of facilities and resources.
8Urban Settlement Defined (J.H. Johnson) Large population size and/or densityDominant occupation is non-rural (NOT agriculture, fishery, forestry)Large enough to have more than local influenceProvides links with similar settlements elsewhereUrban Settlement Defined (J.H. Johnson)
9The Pre-Industrial City Pre-conditionsPrior to the Industrial Revolution, a place may become a town/city if there is presence of:a favorable resource basean advanced technologya complex social organization (G. Sjoberg, summarizing G. Childe)Urbanization and the Poor: Perspectives from the Industrialized West
10The Pre-Industrial City FunctionsUsually small, sometimes walled, serves as residence of political, religious and intellectual elitesecondarily as commercial centerstorage for accumulated social surplusprotection of citizens against their enemiesMinimum specialization in land use; a single site serves multiple functions
11CharacteristicsTechnology simple, meager facilities for credit and capital formationProduction of goods and services involves little specializationMain economic unit is the guildPricing not standardized, haggling is the normElite dominate government postsEducational system serves the elite
12Socio-spatial Structure Social structureEliteLower ClassesOutcastes< Priests, administrators< Urban commoners: craftsmen, bureaucratic personnel< Lower than lower classes: perform tasks essential to the system but outside the pale of respectability
13Socio-spatial Structure Elite resided in or near the centerLower classes fanned out toward peripheryOccupational and ethnic distinctions define allocation of placesFamily is primary socializing agency; the chief determinant of one’s occupational position
14Stages in the Urbaniztion of the Industrialized West Urbanization during the mercantile periodUrbanization and the Industrial Revolutionearly industrial phaseLater industrial phaseUrbanization in the post-industrial eradeindustrialization phaseeconomic restructuring
15Mercantile PhaseCloses the pre-industrial age and transits to the industrial ageTransition to industrialization was slow due tounwillingness of merchant capitalists to invest in manufacture (considered 4th best option behind trade, land and public works)shortage of suitable areas where water power is availableThe poor started to be more visible in the city
16Characteristics Period of petty commodity production Production system dominated by independent artisans and small mastersLandscape predominantly agriculturalShortage of free-laboring population willing to work in new factories
17Socio-spatial Structure Social organization consists of three distinct classes:
18Socio-spatial Structure At the city center clustered churches, public buildings and the homes of the most prominent and well-to-do citizens.Nearby lived lesser merchants and leading craftsmen whose residences intermingled with commercial buildings.Principal focus of activities were the dock, the wharf, the countinghouse, and the warehouse.
19Co-location of place of work and place of residence. Stores or workshops are the same for artisans, small masters and even great merchants (work place on 1st floor; living quarters on 2nd)Junior partners, journeymen and apprentices “lived in” as part of the employer’s family.Some wage laborers lived close to the town center, accessible by foot.
20Housing for WorkersIndustrialists hired entire families and built housing for workersIndustrial housing was substantial, oriented about the millIndustrialists took care to build proper social life among the workers byImposing social and moral order in boarding houses for female workers
21Housing for Workers (continued) nurturing the workers’ cultural and intellectual lifeNo housing provisions for casual day workers who lived in shanty towns at the outskirts(See description of a mill town by Richard A. Walker)
22Transition to Industrialization Industrialization agglomeration made possible by conversion of water power to steam power.Industrial location shifted from near waterfalls to coal fields.Urban development now focused in “Coketowns”, (See Charles Dickens’ description)
23The Industrial City Features of the Industrial Revolution Changes in motive power from water to steam and finally to electricityAdvances in machine production and heavy engineeringImproved transport technology, especially shipbuilding and railway constructionInvestment shift from working capital to fixed capital
24Investment shift is facilitated by Increasing engine speedsUsing specialist merchant houses for continental export tradeWage-saving measures through machine substitutionChild labor
25Industrialization and Urbanization In general, industrialization begets urbanizationBritish, European: Industrialization was the catalyst for Urban Growth‘Factories gave rise to towns’New World (America): Industrialization followed urbanization‘Towns gave rise to factories’
26Factors that Hastened Urbanization (Europe) Unprecedented population growth in the countrysideMechanization, rising productivity, and labor-shedding in agricultureCity-ward migrationrural population as continuous supply of factory workersrural population as source of domestic help
27Factors that Hastened Urbanization (U.S.) Agricultural revolution took place side by side with industrial revolutionMigration of redundant farm labor from the south to northern citiesImmigration of Europeans to “empty lands of the earth”
28Socio-spatial Structure Concentration of production and distribution in the city center or inner citiesCapital-intensive, materials-oriented industries located along rivers, canals, and near railway yards and sidingsAlteration of social relations of production
29New Social Class Structure (Generic) CapitalLabor< Owns the means of production< Propertyless and dependent on wages
30Industrial Capitalist New Capitalist (From labor) Later Social Class Structure (U.S.)Industrial CapitalistNew Capitalist (From labor)Labor< Landlords Real estate operators Builders< Workers, all types
32Social Segregation led to Spatial Segregation Higher social classes distanced themselves from the lower byreorganizing the labor process, replacing the workshop systems with the factory systemseparating work place form residenceHigher classes fled to the suburbs leaving behind the working classes in the central areasSome indutrialists built workers’ barracks near their factories
33Why the working class crowded in or near the city center It is the locus of employmentThey needed to be close to their work becausethey cannot afford the cost of commutingthey have long and irregular work hoursThey needed to be close to casual employmentThe presence of other workers serves as social support network
34Formation of Slums, contributory factors: Working class housing became separate from their place of workWorkers were cut free by employers to fend for themselvesPoor immigrants crowded together near factories resulting in appalling housing conditions
35The Industrial CityFree market in housing gave rise to housing providers among workers themselves who allowed congestion and poor sanitation to make quick money.[See New York Slums in box]
36Displacement of Urban Poor (U.K.) Demolition of overcrowded rundown working class accommodation in central areas gave way toRailway expansionDock developmentPiecemeal and small-scale conversion to commercial developmentGeneral urban improvement, slum clearance, and street widening
37Responses to Workers’ Housing (public sector) “Gas-and-water socialism”: local government provision of clean drinking water, sewerage and drainage to prevent diseases.Construction of high-rise workers tenements at the outskirts of the city.Garden cities to house workers in suburban areas.New towns to catch overspill population of metropolitan areas.
38Responses to Workers’ Housing (non-government sector) Charitable societies (Peabody Trust, Octavia Hill) rehoused slum dwellers in converted housesPhilanthropic capitalists’ built workers’ housing, e. g.Pullman railway workers’ housing, Illinois, U.S.A.Noisel-sur-Seine built by Menier, FranceAgenta Park by Van Marken Yeast and Spirit Works, Delft, The NetherlandsPort Sunlight by the Lever Brothers, Liverpool, U.K.Krupp workers’ housing in Essen, Germany
39The Industrial Age of Urbanization: A Summary The patterns of development during the industrial age are characterized byConcentration of production and circulation in and around the central area with interwoven concentration of working class housing.Rise of suburbanization, first by upper class residents and later by industries and working classes, produced giant conurbations or metropolitan areas.
40The Late Industrial Age (Close of 20th Century) Old central cities have declining shares in regional wealth and population.Environmental pollution, traffic congestion, racial and ethnic discrimination, and financial crises afflict many urban cores.Sharpened distinction between the rich and the poor as seen in gentrified neighborhoods adjacent to low-income-areas.
41The Post-Industrial Age The period of economic restructuring from the 1970s to the present is characterized bydeclining industrial centersplant closures and relocation to other regions and to Third World countriesdeskilling / re-skilling of labour
42Rise of the service economy (tertiary and quartenary) preemincence of the professional and technical classemergence of a new intellectual technology centering on information and information processingProminence of global cities
43Socio-spatial Structure Dominant urban form is the metropolitan urban region with redeveloped urban cores as nodes.Former functions of old CBDs now distributed among suburban work complexes (technology parks, shopping malls).Stylish and expensive residential developments near CBDs or far on the periphery.
44New residential developments fully enclosed, separating the homogeneous community within from the more diverse population without.Increasing distinction between the core city and outer areasnew colonization of the central city by professional and managerial classes quartered in low density single-family estatesthe poor kept in high density public housing blocks in accelerating disrepair
45Distinction between the affluent and the poor within the inner city, a juxtaposition of new middle class enclaves in private housing with stringent security measures andrundown high-rise tenements in public housingRevitalization of urban core and inner cities results in gentrification, displacing the poor
46Post-Industrial City, Impacts on the Poor Recent redevelopment programs emphasize leveraging private investment and deemphasize provision of housing and services to low-income residents.Growth primarily benefits highly skilled professionals and offers little for displaced workers in manufacturing and low-paid service sector jobs.Restructuring and contraction of social benefits produce a widening income gap.