Presentation on theme: "Location of urban settlements Urbanization It occurs when the proportion of urban population to total population increases. Measures the % of total."— Presentation transcript:
It occurs when the proportion of urban population to total population increases. Measures the % of total pop. It is a process by which the no. of urban pop. increases while the rural pop. decreases.
Urban growth It refers to the actual increase in the number of urban population.
Early Settlements Iraq is pretty much where the first cities grew The word 'Mesopotamia' is in origin a Greek name ( mesos 'middle' and potamos 'river', so 'land between the rivers').
The Fertile Crescent Jericho, which is in the middle of the Israel- Palestinian issues, is an OLD city May be as much as 9,000 years old!
The Indus Valley Mohenjodaro and Harappa were major cities Civilization from about 2500 BC to 1500 BC
The Nile Valley The Egyptian civilization from about 3500 BC The pyramids of Giza built at about 2500 BC
Rural-urban migration Movement of people from rural to urban areas Causes: --Population growth --Expansion of urban areas
Why more people in the city? This can be explained by push and pull factors.
Agricultural improvements Farm mechanization Opening up of rural land for urban uses Food supply to cities Release of farm labour
Industrialization Agglomeration economies Mushrooming of industries Large demand for labour
Market potential Market-oriented locations for industries Jobs attracting population Population = market (snowballing effect)
Industrial growth in cities Demand for labour in secondary industry attracting more people to come to the cities rural-urban migration urban growth/ urbanization greater demand for goods and services growth of secondary and tertiary ind. to satisfy the demand Snowballing Effect of industrialization and urbanization
Increased service activities Higher standard of living Need for greater economic and social organization Retailing, entertainment, catering, administration Growth of urbanism
Transport improvements Encourage the horizontal expansion of towns along major routes Increase population mobility Facilitate rural-urban migration
Social and cultural attraction Availability of social facilities, e.g. theatres, art galleries Centre of urban life
Increased education People become more knowledgeable, ambitious Cities provide opportunities to satisfy personal contentment
Natural population growth Migrants are of fertile age Greater wealth makes large families more viable
Urbanization in developed countries Higher level of urbanization Due to early industrialization Which led to rural-urban migration Pull factors being more important rate of urbanization slows down as farm mechanization is almost complete
How do cities grow in developed countries? Upward growth Outward growth
Upward growth of the city Skyscrapers because of rising land price in the city centre taller buildings can maximize floor space made possible with the dev. of lifts and better building materials
Outward growth of cities: Baltimore & Washington areas in US first took place along lines of communication in a star or finger shape improvement in transport people travel faster & live further from their place of work areas between roads are filled in by settlement
Reasons for outward growth of cities (urban sprawl) lack of land rising land price desire to have larger homes with gardens land price and rent is lower in outskirts of the city (lower density housing suburbs) improvement in transport + higher level of car ownership live in suburbs
HAMLET VILLAGE TOWN CITY MEGACITY METROPOLIS CONURBATION MEGALOPOLIS METROPOLIS CONURBATION Hierarchy of urban settlements
Megalopolis = joining of conurbation/many large cities SANSAN CHIPITTS BOSNYWASH
Urbanization in developing countries lower level of urbanization late urbanization (in the 20th century) result of rural-urban migration push factors being more important urbanization is not accompanied by industrialization slow growth of industry living standard remains low unemployment in cities and people living in poverty
Urban growth in developing countries very rapid urban growth due to high natural increase + rural-urban migration low level of urbanization increase of rural population
How do cities grow in developing countries? concentrated in one single city usually the capital city built by the Europeans during the colonial rule primate city e.g. Manila
Slums developed around the city margin with shanty settlements as government doesn’t have money to build houses