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 Greek city-states developed into the Med. Region  Aegean Sea separates Balkan peninsula from Asia minor  Many mountains; no important river  Grew.

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Presentation on theme: " Greek city-states developed into the Med. Region  Aegean Sea separates Balkan peninsula from Asia minor  Many mountains; no important river  Grew."— Presentation transcript:



3  Greek city-states developed into the Med. Region  Aegean Sea separates Balkan peninsula from Asia minor  Many mountains; no important river  Grew grapes, olives  Lots of coastline for trading

4  Island of Crete  Painted frescoes (made of wet plaster on walls)  Bad soil; used sea for trading  Volcanoes destroyed island and invaders finished the job to kill off survivors

5  Invaders from the north  Built cities on Peloponnesus (Tiryns and Pylos) – city of Troy was also destroyed  After the Mycenaeans were destroyed, the Dorians took over

6  Created city-states like Athens and Sparta  Polis – Greek word for city-state (means “fort”)  Chora – the surrounding land outside the city walls  Greek city-states had: 1. Small size 2. Small population 3. Had a fort (polis) on a hill (acropolis) 4. Had public meeting place (agora) - market

7  City-states had a similar gov’t which grew into small kingdoms  Age of Kings  Oral communication between kingdoms  Poets and bards told tales, sang folk songs, ballads, and epics (long poems describing heroes and great events)

8  Written by Homer (a blind poet)  Iliad describes the 10 th year of Trojan War  The Odyssey describes the adventures of Odysseus

9  Not focused on morality  Not focused on the afterlife  Hades – god of the underworld  Believed their gods had human qualities  Lived on Mount Olympus  Developed myths (stories about deeds of the gods)

10  Zeus – god of all gods (sky)  Hera – his wife and sister (women and protection)  Poseidon – brother of Zeus (sea)  Athena – daughter of Zeus (wisdom)  Aphrodite – daughter of Zeus (love, beauty)  Apollo – light, music, poetry  Dionysus – fertility and wine

11  700 B.C. - nobles rose to power (they gave men to kings to serve in the military)  Merchants developed  Colonies developed (increased trade)  Developed imports and exports (goods brought in or taken out to other regions)

12  Nobles controlled city-states (aristocracies – privileged social class)  Tyrants – controlled by force; ruled alone  They always promised peace and prosperity and to defend against nobles  They helped maintain peace to better trade  Some got rid of tyrants and restore monarchies and aristocracies; others formed democracies (gov’t in which all citizens take part)

13  Dorians move south and conquer Sparta and make it their capital  Sparta had no city walls  3 types of men in Sparta 1. Ancestors of Dorian invaders – controlled the government 2. Neighbors – free people but not citizens 3. Helots – agriculture laborers forced to work

14  Gov’t – council of elders  Had 5 elected ephors that oversaw everything (1 year terms)  Military state; weak babies left to die; 7 yr old boys lived in military barracks; bare pain; harsh; in army till 60; no shoes; 1 garment of clothing  Age 30 – married a healthy female  No art, literature, philosophy, science

15  No upper-class invaders like Sparta  No good soil; became sea traders  3 social groups 1. Top citizens – both parents 2. Metics – free but could not own land 3. Slaves  Only citizens that owned land could vote

16  Elected 9 archons (rulers that served 1 year terms) that made all laws  Draco, Solon, Pisistratus, and Cleishenes moved Athens gov’t closer to democracy  All males over 20 voted in an assembly (direct democracy) compared to the U.S. (representative democracy)

17  Farming – most honorable job  Athens had bad soil that was hard & rocky; terracing was used  Sheep, goats, milk, cheese, wool, meat, fish = trading  Built temples, buildings, houses (made of sundried brick)  Oil lamps lighting, no plumbing, had narrow streets, no paving, no sewage, no cleaning

18  Marriage – arranged by parents (13 yr old girls to 28 yr old men was not uncommon)  Babies left to die if family could not afford to support  Married women had some legal rights but needed permission from husband to go in public  Pedagogue – male slave that took care of male babies and taught manners

19  Boys attended school if $ was good  Studied grammar, math, reading, music  Read the Iliad and the Odyssey  Sophist (Greek for wise) – taught older boys; they studied poetry, gov’t, ethics, geometry, astronomy and rhetoric (Public speaking or debating)  18 yr old boys attended military training; 19 yr old boys had celebration for becoming a citizen

20  546 B.C. – Cyrus of Persia conquered Greece  Persians let the Greeks keep gov’t but made them pay taxes  499 B.C. – rebellions broke out (Persian Wars)  Cyrus’ son Darius crushed the revolts  Still mad at Greece but couldn’t conquer Athens and peace ensued for 10 years

21  Darius’ son Xerxes (army of 200,000) marched south and Athenians fled to Salamis (island)  Persians destroyed Athens  But Xerxes’ navy was destroyed and he fled home  This gave Greece confidence (Golden Age) and they built huge temples and public buildings

22  Greek city-states banded together and formed the Delian League (140 states)  Gave $ and ships; could not retreat unless unanimous  By 450 B.C. it became the Athens empire  Pericles – greatest leader for 16 years

23  Athens and Sparta still had cultural differences  Athens – progressive, commercial, culturally advanced  Sparta – agricultural, conservative, culturally backward  Athens thought Spartans were rude and Sparta thought Athens was money hungry

24  Sparta invades Attica – the area around Athens  Athenians withdraw to inside their walls but catch a plague that kills ¼ of their pop. (including Pericles)  Peloponnesian War lasts from 431 B.C. till 404 B.C. when Athens finally surrenders  Spartans mistreat Athenians but Thebes comes in & eventually kill off the Spartans







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