Presentation on theme: "AP Human Geography—Minich"— Presentation transcript:
1 AP Human Geography—Minich Political GeographyAP Human Geography—Minich
2 Political geography: Conflict StateNation-StatePerfect Examples?Multi-National StateExamples: UKPart-Nation StateExamples: KurdsCentrifugal vs. CentripetalExamples?Shatter BeltPunjab
3 Political geography: Conflict BalkanizationCentrifugal ForcesReligionCatholicism, Orthodox, IslamEthnicityLanguageRoman vs. CyrillicCentripetal ForcesPoliticalAustro-HungariansYugoslavia (1991)Ethnic Cleansing“Greater Serbia”Kosovo (1999)
4 “Syrian conflict”Explain the origin of modern Middle Eastern borders according to Rice.What does Rice mean by “sectarian allegiances?”Explain where you see the concept of Balkanization in the editorial.What does she mean by the “Middle East state system?”What is the former Secretary’s proposed solution? Why?
5 Defining a StateDefinition: defined territories, permanent population, fully independent (sovereign)Country=stateHistoryStates have existed for thousands of years.“City-States”EmpiresModern concept—dates back to Europe in the 17th-19th centuriesAs of 1950 only about 50 recognized independent countries; now nearly 200 (and more coming)Antarctica—only large piece of land not controlled by a stateDifficulty of DefinitionWestern Sahara, Taiwan, KoreaPeace of Westphalia (1648)—Thirty Years’ War
6 Difficulty of Defining State: Taiwan Technically part of ChinaUsed to be called “Formosa”Terms:China = People’s Republic of China (PRC)Taiwan = Republic of China (ROC)1949, non-communists (Chiang Kai-shek) fled to islandClaimed independence from ChinaUS supports Taiwan, but says they are all ChinaVery industrialized; GDP per capita= 4-5x of China
7 Difficulty of Defining State: North and South Korea History1895 – 1945Japan38th parallelNK = Communist (USSR)SK = Democracy (US)1950: Korean War36,500 US military killedCease-fire 1953DMZ (Demilitarized Zone)2½ miles wide38,000 US personnel
8 North Korea Atrocities: Camp 14 Development: Dynasty— South Korean economy—24x North Korean GDPDynasty—Kim Il Sung “Great Leader”Kim Jong Il “Dear Leader”Kim Jong UnAtrocities: Camp 14“3 Generations of punishment”
9 State Expansion Colonization Most of the remaining colonies are smallislands in the Pacific or Caribbean.ColonizationCauses—correlation with demographic transition model?Today: ie. “territories, overseas dependencies, subnational entities, in free association, or special administrative regions”
10 State Expansion Organic Theory of States (1901) Friedrich RatzelGermanLebensraumHeartland Theory (1904)Halford John MackinderBritish“World Island”—HeartlandEurope, Asia, Africa—resources“Offshore islands”British Isles, Japan“Outlying islands”North/South America, Australia
11 Heartland vs. Rimland Nicholas Spykman American (1942) Rimland Theory Helped design Containment Policy“Balance of power”Maintain a divided rimland
12 Heartland vs. Rimland Heartland Theory: Rimland Theory: Mackinder believed that a landbased power, not a seabased power, would ultimately rule the world. He believed that Eurasia was the most important area in the world containing a “pivot area” extending from Eastern Europe to eastern Siberia. The “pivot area” became known as the Heartland.Who rules East Europe rules the Heartland.Who rules the Heartland rules the World Island.Who rules the World Island rules the World.Rimland Theory:Spykman believed the Eurasia rim, not its heart, held the key to global power. He parodied Mackinder:Who controls the Rimland rules EurasiaWho rules Eurasia controls the destinies of the world.Spykman saw a divided rimland as a key to the world’s balance of power. Today the rimland includes Western Europe and China
13 Shapes of States Think advantages, disadvantages, and examples… Micro-stateCompactElongatedProruptedPerforatedEnclaveFragmentedExclaveLandlocked
14 Types of Boundaries Think advantages, disadvantages, and examples… PhysicalWater, mountains, etc.CulturalGeometricReligiousLinguisticOthers…AntecedentSuper-imposed boundarySatellite statesRelict
15 Internal Political Organization Geographic power distribution: Think advantages, disadvantages, and examples…Unitary- central government makes laws for the entire nation and gives local governments only limited power and authorityGreat Britain, Japan and FranceFederal System- gives the national government certain powers and reserves others for the statesUnited States, India, Mexico, RussiaConfederation- smaller political units keep their sovereignty and give the central government very limited powersArticles of Confederation, United Nations, European Union
16 Electoral geography Census Apportionment At-large435 members of Congress (1911)1:647,000 people (2000 Census)Redistricting (Responsibility of state legislatures)Compact, Contiguous, Congruent, EquityCensus- 10 years, by the Commerce Department- undercounted lower income, minoritiesApportionment- using the census numbers, states add or lose representatives based on a formula used by the House of RepresentativesAt-large- represent an entire state435 Members- capped the number of members in 1911Sun-belt- southern states, increasing in populationRust-belt- northeastern states losing population
17 Electoral geography Malapportionment (refusal to redistrict) UK— Rotten/pocket boroughReform Act of 1832US—Baker v. Carr (TN,1962), urbanizationWesberry v. Sanders (GA,1964), “one man one vote”Gerrymandering (manipulating district lines)Wasted vote, excess vote, stacked votePartisan, RacialRedistricting- State legislatures draw congressional and legislative districts to reflect to the new apportionmentCompact- firmly packed togetherContiguous- in actual contact, touchingCongruent- roughly the same size and shapeEquity- an equal number of residentsWesberry v. Sanders- “one man, one vote” Warren court (p. 55)Malapportionment- fail to draw lines, keep the old district boundaries in spite of the change in populationGerrymandering- manipulating district linesAffirmative gerrymandering- in the south according to the Voting Rights Act of 1964, all districts have to be submitted to the Justice Department
19 U.S. congressional districts covering Travis County Texas (outlined in red) In 2003, Republicans in the Texas legislature redistricted the state, diluting the voting power of the heavily Democratic county.
20 The unusual "earmuff" shape of the 4th Congressional District of Illinois connects two Hispanic neighborhoods while remaining narrowly tracing Interstate 294.
21 Supranationalism Why do IGO’s (Intergovernmental Organizations) exist? Not new…Delian League (478 BCE), Hanseatic League (13th Cent.)Global vs. RegionalEconomicNAFTA, OPEC, World Trade OrganizationPoliticalOrganization of American States, the Organization of African Unity, British Commonwealth of Nations, Arab LeagueMilitaryNATO, Warsaw Pact, Rome-Berlin AxisNongovernmental Organizations (NGO’s)International Red Cross/Crescent, Green Peace, Doctors Without Borders
23 IGO Research Questions Global or RegionalWhat is the purpose of the organization?Type: Economic, Political, MilitaryWhat states are members?What areas of sovereignty do member states sacrifice in return for membership?What role do you see this IGO playing in the future? How do you think this IGO will change the nature of member/nonmember states?
24 Origin of the United Nations Where did the idea for the UN come from?1945What was its original purpose?What was the League of Nations?How did it form the foundation of the United Nations?What are the differences?
26 Un General Assembly Who belongs? What Powers? 192 Members 2/3’s required to make decisionsWhat Powers?Discuss issues/problemsPass resolutionsVotes for membership election, suspend/admit members, budgetary matters
27 UN Security Council Who belongs? What Powers? 15 members (9 out of 15 required to pass resolutions)5 Permanent Veto Nations (US, Russia, UK, France and China)10 Non-permanent electedWhat Powers?Investigates disputes, pass resolutions, can call for economic or military action
28 UN Secretariat Secretariat Secretary General Peacekeepers Ban Ki-moon day to day operations, taking orders from the UN membersSecretary GeneralBan Ki-moonContinent RotationPeacekeepers
29 Describe the basic Organization International Court of Justice (ICJ)Settles legal disputes between countries, ruling is bindingEconomic and Social Council (ECOSOC)Intended to improve living standardsUNESCO, ILO, FAO, WHO, World BankUN Declarations:Human Rights, Genocide Convention, Law of the Seas, Earth SummitUnited Nations Organization for Education, Science and CultureInternational Labour OrganizationFood and Agriculture OrganizationWorld Health Organization
30 European UnionEU Embassy(Washington, DC)Parliament (Brussels)
31 What is the European Union (EU)? 1951—Sought economic cooperation to prevent a repeat of a conflict like World War II (European Coal and Steel Community—Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and West Germany)1967—European Community (EC) promoted further economic cooperation (12 members), also managed nuclear energy production1993—Maastricht Treaty the EU has been expanding into other policy areas such as the environment, education, security, foreign policy, immigration and crime
32 European Union: Member States (27) Austria (1995) Belgium (1952) Bulgaria (2007) Cyprus (2004) Czech Republic (2004) Denmark (1973) Estonia (2004) Finland (1995) France (1952) Germany (1952) Greece (1981) Hungary (2004) Ireland (1973) Italy (1952)Latvia (2004)Lithuania (2004)Luxembourg (1952)Malta (2004)Netherlands (1952)Poland (2004)Portugal (1986)Romania (2007)Slovakia (2004)Slovenia (2004)Spain (1986)Sweden (1995)United Kingdom (1973)
34 Who can join the EU? To join a country must meet a list of criteria: Stable democratic governmentGood human rights recordSound economic policyWilling to adopt all EU regulations and lawsAcceding countryCroatiaCandidate CountriesIcelandMontenegroSerbiaFYR of MacedoniaTurkeyPotential CandidatesAlbaniaBosnia and Herzegovina Kosovo