Presentation on theme: "AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY—MINICH POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY: CONFLICT State Nation-State Perfect Examples? Multi-National State Examples: UK Part-Nation."— Presentation transcript:
AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY—MINICH POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY
POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY: CONFLICT State Nation-State Perfect Examples? Multi-National State Examples: UK Part-Nation State Examples: Kurds Centrifugal vs. Centripetal Examples? Shatter Belt Punjab
POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY: CONFLICT Balkanization Centrifugal Forces Religion Catholicism, Orthodox, Islam Ethnicity Language Roman vs. Cyrillic Centripetal Forces Political Austro-Hungarians Yugoslavia (1991) Ethnic Cleansing “Greater Serbia” Kosovo (1999)
“SYRIAN CONFLICT” 1.Explain the origin of modern Middle Eastern borders according to Rice. 2.What does Rice mean by “sectarian allegiances?” 3.Explain where you see the concept of Balkanization in the editorial. 4.What does she mean by the “Middle East state system?” 5.What is the former Secretary’s proposed solution? Why?
DEFINING A STATE Definition: defined territories, permanent population, fully independent (sovereign) Country=state History States have existed for thousands of years. “City-States” Empires Modern concept—dates back to Europe in the 17th-19th centuries As of 1950 only about 50 recognized independent countries; now nearly 200 (and more coming) Antarctica—only large piece of land not controlled by a state Difficulty of Definition Western Sahara, Taiwan, Korea Peace of Westphalia (1648)—Thirty Years’ War
DIFFICULTY OF DEFINING STATE: TAIWAN State??? Technically part of China Used to be called “Formosa” Terms: China = People’s Republic of China (PRC) Taiwan = Republic of China (ROC) 1949, non-communists (Chiang Kai-shek) fled to island Claimed independence from China US supports Taiwan, but says they are all China Very industrialized; GDP per capita= 4-5x of China
DIFFICULTY OF DEFINING STATE: NORTH AND SOUTH KOREA History 1895 – 1945 J apan 38 th parallel NK = Communist (USSR) SK = Democracy (US) 1950: Korean War 36,500 US military killed Cease-fire 1953 DMZ (Demilitarized Zone) 2½ miles wide 38,000 US personnel
NORTH KOREA Development: South Korean economy— 24x North Korean GDP Dynasty— Kim Il Sung “Great Leader” Kim Jong Il “Dear Leader” Kim Jong Un Atrocities: Camp 14Camp 14 “3 Generations of punishment”
STATE EXPANSION Colonization Causes—correlation with demographic transition model ? Today: ie. “territories, overseas dependencies, subnational entities, in free association, or special administrative regions” Most of the remaining colonies are small islands in the Pacific or Caribbean.
STATE EXPANSION Organic Theory of States (1901) Friedrich Ratzel German Lebensraum Heartland Theory (1904) Halford John Mackinder British “World Island”—Heartland Europe, Asia, Africa—resources “Offshore islands” British Isles, Japan “Outlying islands” North/South America, Australia
HEARTLAND VS. RIMLAND Nicholas Spykman American (1942) Rimland Theory Helped design Containment Policy “Balance of power” Maintain a divided rimland
HEARTLAND VS. RIMLAND Heartland Theory: Mackinder believed that a landbased power, not a seabased power, would ultimately rule the world. He believed that Eurasia was the most important area in the world containing a “pivot area” extending from Eastern Europe to eastern Siberia. The “pivot area” became known as the Heartland. Who rules East Europe rules the Heartland. Who rules the Heartland rules the World Island. Who rules the World Island rules the World. Rimland Theory: Spykman believed the Eurasia rim, not its heart, held the key to global power. He parodied Mackinder: Who controls the Rimland rules Eurasia Who rules Eurasia controls the destinies of the world. Spykman saw a divided rimland as a key to the world’s balance of power. Today the rimland includes Western Europe and China
SHAPES OF STATES Think advantages, disadvantages, and examples… Micro-state Compact Elongated Prorupted Perforated Enclave Fragmented Exclave Landlocked
TYPES OF BOUNDARIES Think advantages, disadvantages, and examples… Physical Water, mountains, etc. Cultural Geometric Religious Linguistic Others… Antecedent Super-imposed boundary Satellite states Relict
INTERNAL POLITICAL ORGANIZATION Geographic power distribution: Think advantages, disadvantages, and examples… Unitary - central government makes laws for the entire nation and gives local governments only limited power and authority ► Great Britain, Japan and France Federal System - gives the national government certain powers and reserves others for the states ► United States, India, Mexico, Russia Confederation - smaller political units keep their sovereignty and give the central government very limited powers ► Articles of Confederation, United Nations, European Union
ELECTORAL GEOGRAPHY Census Apportionment At-large 435 members of Congress (1911) 1:647,000 people (2000 Census) Redistricting (Responsibility of state legislatures) Compact, Contiguous, Congruent, Equity 16
ELECTORAL GEOGRAPHY Malapportionment (refusal to redistrict) UK— Rotten/pocket borough Reform Act of 1832 US— Baker v. Carr (TN,1962), urbanization Wesberry v. Sanders (GA,1964), “one man one vote” Gerrymandering (manipulating district lines) Wasted vote, excess vote, stacked vote Partisan, Racial
ELECTORAL GEOGRAPHY 2000 Census2010 Census
19 U.S. congressional districts covering Travis County Texas (outlined in red) In 2003, Republicans in the Texas legislature redistricted the state, diluting the voting power of the heavily Democratic county.
20 The unusual "earmuff" shape of the 4th Congressional District of Illinois connects two Hispanic neighborhoods while remaining narrowly tracing Interstate 294.
SUPRANATIONALISM Why do IGO’s (Intergovernmental Organizations) exist? Not new…Delian League (478 BCE), Hanseatic League (13 th Cent.) Global vs. Regional Economic NAFTA, OPEC, World Trade Organization Political Organization of American States, the Organization of African Unity, British Commonwealth of Nations, Arab League Military NATO, Warsaw Pact, Rome-Berlin Axis Nongovernmental Organizations (NGO’s) International Red Cross/Crescent, Green Peace, Doctors Without Borders
IGO RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1.Global or Regional 2.What is the purpose of the organization? Type: Economic, Political, Military 3.What states are members? 4.What areas of sovereignty do member states sacrifice in return for membership? 5.What role do you see this IGO playing in the future? How do you think this IGO will change the nature of member/nonmember states?
ORIGIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS Where did the idea for the UN come from? 1945 What was its original purpose? What was the League of Nations? How did it form the foundation of the United Nations? What are the differences?
UNITED NATIONS MEMBERS
UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY Who belongs? 192 Members 2/3’s required to make decisions What Powers? Discuss issues/problems Pass resolutions Votes for membership election, suspend/admit members, budgetary matters
UN SECURITY COUNCIL Who belongs? 15 members (9 out of 15 required to pass resolutions) 5 Permanent Veto Nations (US, Russia, UK, France and China) 10 Non-permanent elected What Powers? Investigates disputes, pass resolutions, can call for economic or military action
UN SECRETARIAT Secretariat day to day operations, taking orders from the UN members Secretary General Ban Ki-moon Continent Rotation Peacekeepers
DESCRIBE THE BASIC ORGANIZATION International Court of Justice (ICJ) Settles legal disputes between countries, ruling is binding Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) Intended to improve living standards UNESCO, ILO, FAO, WHO, World Bank UN Declarations: Human Rights, Genocide Convention, Law of the Seas, Earth Summit
EUROPEAN UNION Parliament (Brussels) EU Embassy (Washington, DC)
WHAT IS THE EUROPEAN UNION (EU)? 1951—Sought economic cooperation to prevent a repeat of a conflict like World War II ( European Coal and Steel Community —Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and West Germany) 1967— European Community (EC) promoted further economic cooperation (12 members), also managed nuclear energy production 1993— Maastricht Treaty the EU has been expanding into other policy areas such as the environment, education, security, foreign policy, immigration and crime
EUROPEAN UNION: MEMBER STATES (27) Austria (1995) Belgium (1952) Bulgaria (2007) Cyprus (2004) Czech Republic (2004) Denmark (1973) Estonia (2004) Finland (1995) France (1952) Germany (1952) Greece (1981) Hungary (2004) Ireland (1973) Italy (1952) Latvia (2004) Lithuania (2004) Luxembourg (1952) Malta (2004) Netherlands (1952) Poland (2004) Portugal (1986) Romania (2007) Slovakia (2004) Slovenia (2004) Spain (1986) Sweden (1995) United Kingdom (1973)
WHO CAN JOIN THE EU? To join a country must meet a list of criteria: Stable democratic government Good human rights record Sound economic policy Willing to adopt all EU regulations and laws Acceding country Croatia Candidate Countries Iceland Montenegro Serbia FYR of Macedonia Turkey Potential Candidates Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Kosovo
EU: BASIC FACTS Capital: Brussels Area: 4.3 million sq km (US: 9.8 million sq km) France, Spain, UK, Germany Population: 504 million (US: 314 million) Germany, France, Italy, UK GDP $15.48 trillion (US: $15.08 trillion) Per capita GDP $34,100 (US: $48,300) Life Expectancy years (US: years)