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AP Human Geography—Minich

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1 AP Human Geography—Minich
Political Geography AP Human Geography—Minich

2 Political geography: Conflict
State Nation-State Perfect Examples? Multi-National State Examples: UK Part-Nation State Examples: Kurds Centrifugal vs. Centripetal Examples? Shatter Belt Punjab

3 Political geography: Conflict
Balkanization Centrifugal Forces Religion Catholicism, Orthodox, Islam Ethnicity Language Roman vs. Cyrillic Centripetal Forces Political Austro-Hungarians Yugoslavia (1991) Ethnic Cleansing “Greater Serbia” Kosovo (1999)

4 “Syrian conflict” Explain the origin of modern Middle Eastern borders according to Rice. What does Rice mean by “sectarian allegiances?” Explain where you see the concept of Balkanization in the editorial. What does she mean by the “Middle East state system?” What is the former Secretary’s proposed solution? Why?

5 Defining a State Definition: defined territories, permanent population, fully independent (sovereign) Country=state History States have existed for thousands of years. “City-States” Empires Modern concept—dates back to Europe in the 17th-19th centuries As of 1950 only about 50 recognized independent countries; now nearly 200 (and more coming) Antarctica—only large piece of land not controlled by a state Difficulty of Definition Western Sahara, Taiwan, Korea Peace of Westphalia (1648)—Thirty Years’ War

6 Difficulty of Defining State: Taiwan
Technically part of China Used to be called “Formosa” Terms: China = People’s Republic of China (PRC) Taiwan = Republic of China (ROC) 1949, non-communists (Chiang Kai-shek) fled to island Claimed independence from China US supports Taiwan, but says they are all China Very industrialized; GDP per capita= 4-5x of China

7 Difficulty of Defining State: North and South Korea
History 1895 – 1945 Japan 38th parallel NK = Communist (USSR) SK = Democracy (US) 1950: Korean War 36,500 US military killed Cease-fire 1953 DMZ (Demilitarized Zone) 2½ miles wide 38,000 US personnel

8 North Korea Atrocities: Camp 14 Development: Dynasty—
South Korean economy— 24x North Korean GDP Dynasty— Kim Il Sung “Great Leader” Kim Jong Il “Dear Leader” Kim Jong Un Atrocities: Camp 14 “3 Generations of punishment”

9 State Expansion Colonization
Most of the remaining colonies are small islands in the Pacific or Caribbean. Colonization Causes—correlation with demographic transition model? Today: ie. “territories, overseas dependencies, subnational entities, in free association, or special administrative regions”

10 State Expansion Organic Theory of States (1901)
Friedrich Ratzel German Lebensraum Heartland Theory (1904) Halford John Mackinder British “World Island”—Heartland Europe, Asia, Africa—resources “Offshore islands” British Isles, Japan “Outlying islands” North/South America, Australia

11 Heartland vs. Rimland Nicholas Spykman American (1942) Rimland Theory
Helped design Containment Policy “Balance of power” Maintain a divided rimland

12 Heartland vs. Rimland Heartland Theory: Rimland Theory:
Mackinder believed that a landbased power, not a seabased power, would ultimately rule the world. He believed that Eurasia was the most important area in the world containing a “pivot area” extending from Eastern Europe to eastern Siberia. The “pivot area” became known as the Heartland. Who rules East Europe rules the Heartland. Who rules the Heartland rules the World Island. Who rules the World Island rules the World. Rimland Theory: Spykman believed the Eurasia rim, not its heart, held the key to global power. He parodied Mackinder: Who controls the Rimland rules Eurasia Who rules Eurasia controls the destinies of the world. Spykman saw a divided rimland as a key to the world’s balance of power. Today the rimland includes Western Europe and China

13 Shapes of States Think advantages, disadvantages, and examples…
Micro-state Compact Elongated Prorupted Perforated Enclave Fragmented Exclave Landlocked

14 Types of Boundaries Think advantages, disadvantages, and examples…
Physical Water, mountains, etc. Cultural Geometric Religious Linguistic Others… Antecedent Super-imposed boundary Satellite states Relict

15 Internal Political Organization
Geographic power distribution: Think advantages, disadvantages, and examples… Unitary- central government makes laws for the entire nation and gives local governments only limited power and authority Great Britain, Japan and France Federal System- gives the national government certain powers and reserves others for the states United States, India, Mexico, Russia Confederation- smaller political units keep their sovereignty and give the central government very limited powers Articles of Confederation, United Nations, European Union

16 Electoral geography Census Apportionment
At-large 435 members of Congress (1911) 1:647,000 people (2000 Census) Redistricting (Responsibility of state legislatures) Compact, Contiguous, Congruent, Equity Census- 10 years, by the Commerce Department - undercounted lower income, minorities Apportionment- using the census numbers, states add or lose representatives based on a formula used by the House of Representatives At-large- represent an entire state 435 Members- capped the number of members in 1911 Sun-belt- southern states, increasing in population Rust-belt- northeastern states losing population

17 Electoral geography Malapportionment (refusal to redistrict)
UK— Rotten/pocket borough Reform Act of 1832 US— Baker v. Carr (TN,1962), urbanization Wesberry v. Sanders (GA,1964), “one man one vote” Gerrymandering (manipulating district lines) Wasted vote, excess vote, stacked vote Partisan, Racial Redistricting- State legislatures draw congressional and legislative districts to reflect to the new apportionment Compact- firmly packed together Contiguous- in actual contact, touching Congruent- roughly the same size and shape Equity- an equal number of residents Wesberry v. Sanders- “one man, one vote” Warren court (p. 55) Malapportionment- fail to draw lines, keep the old district boundaries in spite of the change in population Gerrymandering- manipulating district lines Affirmative gerrymandering- in the south according to the Voting Rights Act of 1964, all districts have to be submitted to the Justice Department

18 Electoral geography 2000 Census 2010 Census

19 U.S. congressional districts covering Travis County Texas (outlined in red) In 2003, Republicans in the Texas legislature redistricted the state, diluting the voting power of the heavily Democratic county.

20 The unusual "earmuff" shape of the 4th Congressional District of Illinois connects two Hispanic neighborhoods while remaining narrowly tracing Interstate 294.

21 Supranationalism Why do IGO’s (Intergovernmental Organizations) exist?
Not new…Delian League (478 BCE), Hanseatic League (13th Cent.) Global vs. Regional Economic NAFTA, OPEC, World Trade Organization Political Organization of American States, the Organization of African Unity, British Commonwealth of Nations, Arab League Military NATO, Warsaw Pact, Rome-Berlin Axis Nongovernmental Organizations (NGO’s) International Red Cross/Crescent, Green Peace, Doctors Without Borders


23 IGO Research Questions
Global or Regional What is the purpose of the organization? Type: Economic, Political, Military What states are members? What areas of sovereignty do member states sacrifice in return for membership? What role do you see this IGO playing in the future? How do you think this IGO will change the nature of member/nonmember states?

24 Origin of the United Nations
Where did the idea for the UN come from? 1945 What was its original purpose? What was the League of Nations? How did it form the foundation of the United Nations? What are the differences?

25 United Nations Members

26 Un General Assembly Who belongs? What Powers? 192 Members
2/3’s required to make decisions What Powers? Discuss issues/problems Pass resolutions Votes for membership election, suspend/admit members, budgetary matters

27 UN Security Council Who belongs? What Powers?
15 members (9 out of 15 required to pass resolutions) 5 Permanent Veto Nations (US, Russia, UK, France and China) 10 Non-permanent elected What Powers? Investigates disputes, pass resolutions, can call for economic or military action

28 UN Secretariat Secretariat Secretary General Peacekeepers Ban Ki-moon
day to day operations, taking orders from the UN members Secretary General Ban Ki-moon Continent Rotation Peacekeepers

29 Describe the basic Organization
International Court of Justice (ICJ) Settles legal disputes between countries, ruling is binding Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) Intended to improve living standards UNESCO, ILO, FAO, WHO, World Bank UN Declarations: Human Rights, Genocide Convention, Law of the Seas, Earth Summit United Nations Organization for Education, Science and Culture International Labour Organization Food and Agriculture Organization World Health Organization

30 European Union EU Embassy (Washington, DC) Parliament (Brussels)

31 What is the European Union (EU)?
1951—Sought economic cooperation to prevent a repeat of a conflict like World War II (European Coal and Steel Community—Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and West Germany) 1967—European Community (EC) promoted further economic cooperation (12 members), also managed nuclear energy production 1993—Maastricht Treaty the EU has been expanding into other policy areas such as the environment, education, security, foreign policy, immigration and crime

32 European Union: Member States (27)
Austria (1995) Belgium (1952) Bulgaria (2007) Cyprus (2004) Czech Republic (2004) Denmark (1973) Estonia (2004) Finland (1995) France (1952) Germany (1952) Greece (1981) Hungary (2004) Ireland (1973) Italy (1952) Latvia (2004) Lithuania (2004) Luxembourg (1952) Malta (2004) Netherlands (1952) Poland (2004) Portugal (1986) Romania (2007) Slovakia (2004) Slovenia (2004) Spain (1986) Sweden (1995) United Kingdom (1973)


34 Who can join the EU? To join a country must meet a list of criteria:
Stable democratic government Good human rights record Sound economic policy Willing to adopt all EU regulations and laws Acceding country Croatia Candidate Countries Iceland Montenegro Serbia FYR of Macedonia Turkey Potential Candidates Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Kosovo

35 Euro

36 EU: Basic Facts Capital: Brussels
Area: 4.3 million sq km (US: 9.8 million sq km) France, Spain, UK, Germany Population: 504 million (US: 314 million) Germany, France, Italy, UK GDP $15.48 trillion (US: $15.08 trillion) Per capita GDP $34,100 (US: $48,300) Life Expectancy years (US: years)

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