4 Basic introductory concepts StateA government with a capitol and borderExamples – the USA, Canada and RussiaNationA national group, often the same as “ethnic group” (or linguistic group)The Pottawatomi “nation”, the Flemish nation, the Thai nation“nation-state”When the borders of a “nation” match the border of a single stateCentrifugal forcesCentripetal forces
5 Cooperation among States – the “supranational” institutuion Political and military cooperationThe United NationsRegional military alliancesEconomic cooperationThe European Union
6 United Nations Members Fig. 8-1: The UN has increased from 51 members in 1945 to 191 in 2003.
7 The European Union and NATO Fig. 8-12: NATO and the European Union have expanded and accepted new members as the Warsaw Pact and COMECON have disintegrated.
8 Defining States and the Development of the “State Concept” Problems of defining statesKorea: one state or two?China and Taiwan: one state or two?Varying sizes of states
12 Antarctica: National Claims Fig. 8-2: Antarctica is the only large landmass that is not part of a state, but several countries claim portions of it.
13 Development of the “state concept” “City state” emerged with agricultureMulticultural Empires eventually emerge and become the historical normTreaty of Westphalia – 1648 – the establishment of the principle of “sovereignty”The ideal of the “nation-state” – 19th century
14 The Fertile CrescentFig. 8-3: The Fertile Crescent was the site of early city-states and a succession of ancient empires.
15 Colonial Possessions, 1914Fig. 8-4: By the outbreak of World War I, European states held colonies throughout the world, especially throughout Africa and in much of Asia.
16 Colonial Possessions, 2003Fig. 8-5: Most of the remaining colonies are small islands in the Pacific or Caribbean.
17 Boundaries and Boundary Problems of States Shapes of statesFive basic shapesTypes of boundariesBoundaries inside statesUnitary and federal statesTrend toward federal governmentElectoral geography
18 State morphologies: (1) compact, (2) elongated, (3) fragmented, (4) prorupted, and (5) perforated
19 African StatesFig. 8-6: Southern, central, and eastern Africa include states that are compact, elongated, prorupted, fragmented, and perforated.
20 Types of borders: frontier, geometric and contested Fig. 8-8: Several states in the Arabian Peninsula are separated by frontiers rather than precise boundaries.
21 Aozou Strip: A Geometric Boundary Fig. 8-9: The straight boundary between Libya and Chad was drawn by European powers, and the strip is the subject of controversy between the two countries.
22 Division of Cyprus: a contested border Fig. 8-10: Cyprus has been divided into Green and Turkish portions since 1974.
34 PG Case Study: The EU in 2007World’s largest supranational union (with 460 million people presently)25 member states (internally very diverse, multiple languages and ethnicities)Established officially in 1992 by the Treaty of European UnionMost significant factorsSingle common marketCustoms unionSingle currency managed by the European central bank (Euro)Common trade policyCommon agricultural policyAbolished passport and border checks internally for most member states (greater mobility for people, capital, ideas)
35 Institutions of the EU Council of the EU The EU commission The European Court of JusticeThe European ParliamentThe European Central BankYet, there is no official capitol like Washington DC in the USRather, these institutions are headquartered in various important citiesBRUSSELS: European CommissionSTRASBOURG: European ParliamentLUXEMBOURG CITY: European Court of Justice
37 Geographical Expansion of the EU Founding members (“core members”)Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg
38 Progressively expansion to Periphery and the East
39 What is the point of the EU? Advantages of the EU… PeaceEconomically-dependent countries rarely go to war with each otherCounterweight to US dominancePopulation (it’s bigger)Economy (about the same size)Rising importance of the Euro on the global stageProblem solving abilitiesProsperity – open borders create economic efficiency and economic growth
40 However, there are “Eurosceptics” REJECTIONof the EUROMaintainINDEPENDENCE!!