Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12: Reconstruction"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 12: Reconstruction The Big Picture: Following the Civil War, Congress implemented a plan to reconstruct the South. After 12 years, and in response to fierce resistance from many white southerners, the federal government declared Reconstruction over.
2Chapter 12 section 1: Plans for reconstruction Main Idea: Northern leaders had differing ideas for dealing with the many issues and challenges of restoring the southern states to the Union.
3The South after the War Property Losses Challenges for African Americans and the SouthProperty values drop to half what they were before the warMany plantations lost workers (20% white male population died; slaves fled)Transportation systems, esp. railroads were devastated4 million newly freed slavesNo money, education, or job prospectsFederal government still needed to address what role African Americans would play in politics and what would happen to former Confederate states
4Wartime Reconstruction Freedmen’s BureauLincoln’s Reconstruction and OppositionMarch 1865: Congress creates the Freedmen’s Bureau: provided help to both black and white southernersNorthern army had seized many plantations during the war and paid former slaves to stay and workSome former slaves earned enough to buy the land from the government1862: Lincoln appointed military governors to run the SouthTen Percent Plan: when 10% of a state’s voters to a loyalty oath, they could organize a new state government that banned slaveryArkansas, Louisiana, and Tennessee rejoined the Union under this planCongressional leaders opposed this plan for two reasons: readmitting states should be a Congressional decision and it was too lenient1864: Wade-Davis Bill: required 51% of voters to pledge loyalty to rejoin the unionLincoln killed this bill with a pocket veto because he thought it was too harsh
5Lincoln’s Assassination Lincoln’s popularity and political skill probably would have made him ultimately victorious in his battle with Congress over Reconstruction if he had survivedApril 14, 1865: John Wilkes Booth, a Southerner, shot and killed Lincoln while he was watching a play at Ford’s TheatreThe assassination was part of a larger plot to kill the vice-president and the cabinet, but the other assassins failedHe was later killed in a shoot-out with Union troopsLincoln’s assassination meant that Southerner Andrew Johnson was now president of the United States and in charge of Reconstruction
6Johnson and Congress Differ over Reconstruction Early RelationsOpposition to Johnson’s PlanMost Republicans thought they could work with Johnson because he believed the South should be punished for treason even though he was a SouthernerBut Johnson really wanted to harm the wealthy planter class (he grew up poor), not the entire SouthCongress was in recess until Dec , and Johnson felt he had the power to run Reconstruction while they were out of townJohnson’s Plan included a loyalty oath (no specific %) but added one condition: Southerners with property over $20,000 had to apply for a personal pardon from the PresidentRepublican Congressional leaders Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens were opposed to the plan because it didn’t help former slavesBy the time they came back to DC, all states but Texas had met Johnson’s requirement
7Chapter 12 Section 2: Congressional reconstruction Main Idea: Congress took control of Reconstruction as a new, radical branch of the Republican Party was emerging.
8Reconstruction Under President Johnson Johnson and Southern State GovernmentsBlack Codes and Southern DefianceSouth welcomed Johnson’s approachSoutherners wanted to rebuild government under white controlJohnson also believed that African-Americans should not have a place in Southern governmentMost Southerners elected to Congress were former generals or government leaders in the ConfederacyStates were required to ratify the 13th Amendment but quickly passed black codes: laws that kept African Americans in slave-like conditions and dependent upon plantations (required to sign year- long contracts, couldn’t own property, couldn’t own guns)Ku Klux Klan formed to enforce laws and customs through terror
9Congress Takes Control of Reconstruction Northern Opposition; Congress fights BackJohnson versus CongressNortherners origionally supported Johnson’s plan but quickly became disturbed at what was happening to African Americans in the SouthRadical Republicans under Thaddeus Stevens favored tougher requirements for Southern states and wanted economic opportunity and political equality for freed slaveswhen they returned from recess, Congress passed a bill extending aid through the Freedmen’ BureauCivil Rights Act of 1866: gave African Americans citizenship and equal rightsJohnson vetoes both bills claiming they were unnecessary and unconstitutionalBoth bills were passed over his veto and Congress was determined to take control of Reconstruction
10Radical Reconstruction Reconstruction ActsWorried that the Supreme Court would overturn the Civil Rights Act, Congress passed the 14th Amendment: granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the US and granted them equal protection under the lawAfter wins in the 1866 election, Radical Republicans passed the Reconstruction Acts: divided the South into 5 military districts controlled by a general until the state ratified the 14th Amendment and gave A-A men the right to voteJohnson’s Impeachment/15th AmendmentTenure of Office Act required the president to ask Congress to be allowed to fire cabinet membersJohnson refused and fired Stanton, a supporter of Congressional RepublicansCongress votes to impeach him (formally accuse him of a crime)After a 2 month trial, Johnson is acquitted1868: Republicans choose U.S. Grant as presidential candidate (wins)15th Amendment: grants African American men the right to vote (most joined Republican Party)
11Chapter 12 section 3: republicans in charge Main Idea: Republican Reconstruction had a significant impact on life in the South.
12Republican Government Brings Change to the South Scalawags and CarpetbaggersAfrican Americans and New State GovernmentMilitary Reconstruction changes Southern politics:Scalawags: white Southerners who join the Republican Party and cooperate; seen as traitors to fellow white SouthernersTended to be poor whites who opposed secession and the war and hoped to gain more political powerCarpetbaggers: northern Republicans who moved south to reconstruct the South (also hated by most white Southerners)Scalawags, carpetbaggers, and freedmen joined together to run state governmentsAfrican Americans were the largest group of Republican voters in the South; 700 served in state legislatures and 16 served in CongressNew state governments provided social services (more schools; hospitals, railroads, and repealed black codes)
13Life after Slavery for African Americans Seeking Economic OpportunityEducation and ReligionAfrican American families worked to reunite with loved onesSome moved to urban areas looking for jobs (pop. doubled in 10 cities)—small numbers moved North or WestMost remained on their former plantations working for their former mastersBy ,000 African Americans were enrolled in schoolThe Freedmen’s Bureau started over 4,000 schoolsAfrican Americans also started their own churches, which often became the center of the communitySome of these churches started schools (i.e. Morehouse College)They also created clubs, fire companies, and aid societies
14Reconstruction and Land Ownership Some Radical Republicans wanted to seize Southern land and give it to former slaves (Southern Homestead Act: gave gov’t owned land to slaves, but was repealed because former slaves lacked seed/tools only 4,000 families got land)many whites refused to sell landTwo farming systems emerged: sharecropping: owners provide land, tools, and seed, the resulting crop is shared with the farmers; OR tenant farming: owner rents land for a fixed price, farmer is responsible for all materials and ‘owns’ resulting crop and can choose what to plantMost were sharecroppers; all ended up in poverty and in debt because they had to borrow money to meet needs before the harvest of the cropsCollapse of cotton prices and overproduction also hurt farmersIndustry grew in the South during Reconstruction, but African Americans were excluded from factory jobs and workers made lower wages than up North and were indebted to company stores
15Chapter 12 section 4: Reconstruction collapses Main Idea: A variety of events and forces led to the end of Reconstruction, which left a mixed legacy for the nation.
16Problems with Reconstruction Terrorist groups in the SouthSupport for Reconstruction DeclinesKu Klux Klan most active of several different terrorist organizationsThey included planters, merchants, and poor white farmers and laborersCommon goal: undo advances and restore old political and social orderMain target: African American leaders but they also attacked men and women working with the Freedmen’s BureauEnforcement Acts: (1870/1871) heavy penalties including jail for preventing people from votingKKK power and influence did decline as a result of these lawsWhite Southerners claim Enforcement Acts restrict individual rightsNortherners were frustrated with the continued need to post troops in the SouthTaxes increased and states were deeply in debtDemocrats won control of Congress in 1874A 5-year depression beginning in also weakened support for Reconstruction
17The End of Reconstruction “Redeeming” the SouthThe Election of 1876Supreme Court weakens Reconstruction: Slaughterhouse Cases: most civil rights are under state control, 14th Amendment doesn’t applyTerror against Southern Republicans became more brutal and bold; federal gov’t did little to helpDemocrats, calling themselves Redeemers, began to take control of Southern states(R) Rutherford B. Hayes vs. (D) Samuel TildenTilden one vote shy of majority in Electoral College (20 votes in dispute-19 from South)Both sides made charges of voter fraud; Tilden supporters threatened to go to war over the outcomeCompromise of 1877: Hayes given the 20 disputed votes becomes president; in return all federal troops were withdrawn from the South ending Reconstruction
18Reconstruction’s Legacy 14th and 15th Amendment have profound effects for African Americans in South and North15th Amendment increases calls for women to gain right to voteIndustrialization and economic change in the South leads to the rise of the New SouthSupreme Court decisions weaken 14th & 15th Amendments and allow white Southern Democrats to control lives of African AmericansSoutherners deeply resent federal interventionSouth becomes so strongly Democratic, it becomes known as the Solid South, Republicans cannot make gains until the 1970s