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Revolution Brings Reform and Terror Chapter 7 Section 2.

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1 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror Chapter 7 Section 2

2 The Assembly Reforms France August 4, 1789 – The Great Fear is making everything chaotic and people are panicking – Feel like something must be done- meet the night of August 4 go all through the night – People make grand speeches, people crying, denounce all privileges. “Patriotic drunkenness”- One upped each other on the amount they could give up – By the next morning the Old Regime is completely finished

3 The Assembly Reforms France Rights of Man – August 26, Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen – Declaration of rights of man and citizen Ideas of Enlightenment – Liberty, Egalite, Fraternité- Liberty, equality, fraternity is adopted as thier slogan

4 The Assembly Reforms France A state controlled church – Took over church lands and made church officials be elected – Made them swear a loyalty oath- many refuse and are hunted down – Lands helped pay off France’s debt – Church becomes a place for political announcements – Many peasants are devout Catholics and were shocked by these reforms, thus no longer supported the Assembly Separation of church and state

5 The Assembly Reforms France Louis tries to escape – Mobs keep King and Queen in the city when they try to leave to visit their priest – Decide to flee the country and return at the head of the Austrian Army ( Marie’s Brother Emperor) – Writes a letter before he leaves saying he does not believe in any part of the Revolution even though he had taken an oath of loyalty – Thought that only Paris would be the problem – Family makes escape in costume, pretends to be someone else – Louis gets cocky ( talked to people, put up curtains in carriage, etc.) – Recognized by Drouet from bank note- rides to the next town – About 1,500 people from town stop them in Varennes and return them to Paris under guard

6 Divisions Develop After 2 years of arguing finally make a new constitution in 1791 Limited constitutional monarchy Legislative Assembly- New body created by the constitution, could create laws and approve or reject declarations of war. – King still had executive power to enforce laws

7 Divisions Develop Old problems still remain Legislative assembly split into 3 groups. – 1. Radicals- sat on the left side of the hall Opposed the idea of Monarchy and wanted sweeping changes – 2. Moderates- Sat in the center Wanted some changes, but not like the radicals – 3. Conservatives- Sat on the right Wanted limited monarchy and few changes

8 Divisions Develop Factions outside the Legislative Assembly – Emigres Nobles and others who had fled France and wanted to restore the old Regime – Sans-Culottes Parisian workers who wanted the Revolution to bring even bigger changes in France “Without Knee breeches”

9 War and Execution Europe looks on Horrified- Asks France to restore Louis – The Legislative Assembly Declares War in April 1792 – By Summer of 1792 Prussian forces almost to Paris Threaten to destroy Paris if Royal Family harmed August 10 20,000 people invade the royal palace and imprison the royal family September Rumors again make them fearful so they raid the prisons and kill over 1,000 people ( mainly nobles, priest, and royal sympathizers)

10 War and Execution Radicals in the streets and among the Legislative Assembly pressure the Assembly into getting rid of the constitution – Declared the King disposed, new election of a new legislature Made a new governing body called the National Convention – Elected by universal manhood suffrage – Took office on Sept. 21, 1792 – Abolished monarchy, declared France a republic, all male citizens could hold office.

11 War and Execution Jacobins take control – Jacobins – the most powerful radical political organization during the French Revolution – Most people involved in the changes in 1792 were apart of this club – Under their control they reduce the King to commoner and tried him for treason – Find him guilty (by a very close vote) and sentence him to death – January 21, 1793 Louis executed by the Guillotine

12 War and Execution Fall 1792 tide turns to France’s advantage Early 1793 Great Britain, Holland, and Spain all join in fight against France. Jacobin Leaders force to have a draft – 300,000 citizens between 18 and 40. – By 1794 army had grown to 800,000 and included women

13 The Terror Grips France The new government of France has enemies from the inside as well as outside Maximilien Robespierre – Radical leftist – Very popular in the Jacobin clubs- wrote great speeches, had the nick name “L’incorruptible” – Wanted to build a “republic of virtue” – New calendar( 10 day wk.), new religion(cult of the supreme being), vous form outlawed

14 The terror grips France July 1793 Robespierre elected to committee of public safety Next year he rules basically as a dictator- his reign is know as the Reign of Terror – Imposing a “single will” through political surveillance and violence People tried in the morning and guillotined in the afternoon

15 The Terror Grips France Saw fellow radicals who wanted to relax/ stop the terror as willing to compromise and therefore not virtuous Tried to revolt and are all executed Suspended laws in order to get a stable government – 1500 people killed between June 10 and July 15, 1794 – Up to 40,000 people died during the terror

16 End of the Terror Eventually no one feels safe, so they turn on Robespierre July 1794 they come for Robespierre – Tries to kill himself, but shoots his jaw off – Take him to Guillotine and he dies the same place as Louis Backlash against the terror – Make a new government known as the directory Bicameral legislator and 5 men executive body Made up of moderates


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