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The French Revolution and Napoleon

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1 The French Revolution and Napoleon
Section Two Revolution Brings Reform and Terror

2 The Assembly Reforms France
Peasants, nobles and clergy felt the Great Fear Bands of angry peasants struck out against members of the upper classes On August 4,1789 some nobles and members of the clergy in the National Assembly made grand speeches in support of the Third Estate The feudal privileges of the First and Second Estates were swept away They were now equal to the commoners

3 The Rights of Man Three weeks after, the National Assembly adopted a statement called “The Rights of Man and of the Citizen” Drawing on the Declaration of Independence, the statement said that: Men are born and remain free and equal in rights These rights included liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression Guarantees of equal justice, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion The expression: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” became the slogan of the Revolution When a woman tried to publish a declaration on the rights of women, her ideas were rejected and in 1793 she was executed as an enemy of the Revolution

4 A State-Controlled Church
The National Assembly took over Church lands and sold them to pay off the national debt Church officials and priests were to be elected and paid as state officials Millions of French people were devout Catholics and were offended by these actions The peasants were especially upset and believed the pope should rule over the Church independent of the state Peasants were opposed to most actions taken by the Assembly from this point on

5 Louis Tries to Escape The royal family felt it was unsafe to remain in France In June of 1791 Louis and his family tried to escape to the Austrian controlled Netherlands They were caught and arrested The enemies of the monarchy grew stronger than ever from this point on

6 A Limited Monarchy In September of 1791 the National Assembly completed the new constitution It created a limited constitutional monarchy and stripped the king of most of his authority It created the Legislative Assembly as the lawmaking body, giving it power also over declarations of war The king still had the power to enforce laws

7 Factions Split France Many of the problems that plagued Louis were still around including food shortages and government debt The Legislative Assembly split into three general groups Radicals- sat on the left of the room and wanted an end to the monarchy and major changes in how government was run Moderates- sat in the middle and wanted some change, but not as much Conservatives- sat on the right and supported a limited monarchy and wanted little change

8 Two Other Groups Émigrés- nobles and supporters of the monarchy who left the country, but wanted to return and restore the old order Sans-culottes- workers and small shopkeepers in Paris who wanted very radical reform of the government

9 War and Execution Other nations, especially Austria and Prussia insisted that France restore absolute monarchy The Legislative Assembly refused and went to war in April of 1792 Prussia had the upper hand almost from the start. Soon their troops advanced on Paris The royal palace was attacked by over 20,000 French citizens. The royal family was arrested. French prisons holding royal sympathizers were raided and prisoners massacred. In 1792 the Legislative Assembly set aside the constitution and the National Convention took power The monarchy was abolished and France was declared a republic. Adult male citizens were granted the right to vote and hold public office

10 Jacobins Take Control The National Convention was dominated by a political group called the Jacobin Club It was led by Jean-Paul Marat He called for the execution of anyone who supported the monarchy Louis was tried for treason, found guilty, and executed by guillotine on January 21, 1793 See pg. 225 in text for guillotine explanation

11 The War Continues The National Convention was still waging a war with Austria and Prussia In early 1793, Great Britain, Holland, and Spain joined the war against France The Jacobins ordered a draft of all citizens between 18 and 40 The French army had grown to 800,000 and included women

12 The Terror Grips France
The Jacobins had not only foreign armies to deal with, but also enemies within France Peasants, priests, and rival leaders were all stirring trouble around France

13 Robespierre Assumes Control
In early 1793, a Jacobin leader, Maximillian Robespierre gained power He supported building a “republic of virtue”, by wiping out every trace of France’s past He created a new calendar and closed all churches In July of 1793 he became a dictator and ruled France for the next year under what was called a “reign of terror” Robespierre governed under what was called the Committee of Public Safety It executed thousands of people, including fellow Jacobins that were not radical enough as well as Marie Antoinette Over 40,000 people died, mostly peasants, the poor and middle class

14 End of the Terror In July of 1794 members of the National Convention turned on Robespierre and had him executed In 1795 a moderate group of leaders placed power in the hands of the upper middle class They created a two house legislature and an executive body of five men called the Directory This group named Napoleon Bonaparte to command France’s armies

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