Presentation on theme: " Why did peasant begin to become weary of the French Revolution? Executions of clergy men and sale of church land."— Presentation transcript:
Why did peasant begin to become weary of the French Revolution? Executions of clergy men and sale of church land.
War with Austria Radicals execute the king Reign of terror and Maximilien Robespierre What happens after the end of the Reign of terror. Video to tie it all in! Pass out mid term review and answer any questions.
War with Austria: - Radicals hoped to spread revolution to all of Europe. - Austria and Prussia suggest putting Louis back on the throne. War declared – August 1792.
War began badly for French forces. Summer 1792 – enemy armies were advancing towards Paris. July 25 – Prussian leader threatened to destroy Paris if anyone harmed the royal family. Response: 20,000 men and women raided the Tuileries killing all of Louis guards and imprisoning him.
As volunteers were getting ready to leave. - rumors of imprisoned royalist retaking Paris went around. Early September- Parisians raided the prisons killing over a 1,000 prisoners.
Mob leaders had more power than the government. Jean Paul Marat: editor of a newspaper, suggested killing all enemies of the revolution. Georges Danton: dedicated to the rights of poor people. September 21 – National Convention declared France a republic and abolished the Monarchy.
Radical Jacobins: tried Louis XVI for treason and sentenced him to death. January 21, 1793 – Louis was beheaded by a machine called the Guillotine.
First issue – continuing the war with Austria and Prussia. 1793 – Great Britain, Holland, and Spain allied with Austria and Prussia – First Coalition. - France suffered many defeats. February 1793 – Draft 300,000 French citizens between 18-40. 1794 – Army of 800,000 and included women.
Jacobins had thousands of enemies: - peasants against the beheading of clergy men. - Rival leaders stirring up rebellions. Maximilien Robespierre- gained power and tried to wipe out any trace of the royalty or nobility in France. - Calendar changed to be more scientific. i.e. 10 day week to get rid of Sundays.
All churches ransacked and closed. Robespierre became leader of the Committee of Public Safety. Tried people in the morning and beheaded them in the afternoon. July 1793- July 1794: virtually a dictator his rule became known as the reign of terror.
Most famous victim: Marie Antoinette (wife of Louis XVI) - Most “enemies” were revolutionaries that challenged his power. October 1793 – revolutionary courts pronounced death sentences on many of the leaders who first helped start the revolution.
Georges Danton- found himself in danger for being less radical. National Convention feared defending him, they joined in on condemning him. On the scaffold Danton said: “don’t forget to show my head to the people. It’s well worth seeing.”
Thousands of people were sentenced to death for silly crimes. i.e. 18 year old boy sentenced to death for cutting down a tree dedicated to liberty. - tavern owner put to death for selling sour wine to revolutionaries.
3,000 killed in Paris. 40,000 killed in France. About 85% were peasants or members of the middle class.
July 1794- National Convention members were not safe. Conspired to arrest Robespierre. July 28, 1794 he was executed. Public opinion quickly shifted to the right (conservative). 1795 – moderate leaders took over the convention. 1789 – New Constitution - Two house legislature - executive body of five men called the directory. Directory found a talented young man to lead France to victory. Who was he?