3Recall: CAUSES of WarEconomic & Social Differences Between North and SouthStates’ Rights vs. Federal RightsFight Between Slave & Non-Slave ProponentsGrowth of the Abolition MovementElection of Abraham LincolnSecession of Southern States
4SHOWDOWN AT FT. SUMTERFt. Sumter, in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, was one of the few forts in the South still in federal hands in 1861 Lincoln did not want to surrender the Fort – yet the Fort desperately needed supplies Confederate President Davis demanded the Fort’s surrender
6Showdown at Ft. SumterOn April 12, 1861, President Jefferson Davis ordered Confederate artillery to open fire After 33 hours of bombardment, Ft. Sumter surrendered On April 14, the Confederate flag was raised over the Fort
9Lincoln’s ResponsePresident Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to “put down the Southern rebellion” All Southern states refused to send troops against “sister Southern states” On April 17, Virginia seceded, followed by Arkansas, Tennessee, & North Carolina in May
10The question…What would Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri do?
11GOALS OF NORTH & SOUTHNORTH Lincoln: asked Northerners to fight to “save the Union” SOUTH To be “left alone”
12Advantages of North & South NORTH Larger population More factories & railroads SOUTH Fighting to “preserve” self – Defensive war against “invasion” Strong military tradition (150+ WP) Huge cotton exports overseas
161st MAJOR BATTLE: Manassas Both sides had formed Armies: Union & Confederate Location: ‘Bull Run,’ a small stream about 25 miles from Washington, DC -- Confederate troops waited at the small town of Manassas Junction.
17Manassas (con’t)On July 16, 1862, the untried Union army under Brigadier General Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. On the 21st, McDowell crossed at Sudley Ford and attacked the Confederate left flank on Matthews Hill. Fighting raged throughout the day as Confederate forces were driven back to Henry Hill. Late in the afternoon, Confederate reinforcements (one brigade arriving by rail from the Shenandoah Valley) extended and broke the Union right flank.
18Manassas (con’t)The Federal retreat rapidly deteriorated into a rout. The Union retreat turned into a panicky stampede as soldiers and onlookers fled the battlefield. Although victorious, Confederate forces were too disorganized to pursue. Confederate General Bee and Colonel Bartow were killed. Thomas J. Jackson earned the name "Stonewall."
19Manassas (continued)By July 22, the shattered Union army reached the safety of Washington. This battle convinced the Lincoln administration that the war would be a long and costly affair. McDowell was relieved of command of the Union army and replaced by Major General George B. McClellan, who set about reorganizing and training the troops. Principal Commanders: Brigadier General Irvin McDowell [US]; Brigadier General Joseph E. Johnston and Brigadier General P.G.T. Beauregard [CS] Forces Engaged: 60,680 total (US 28,450; CS 32,230) Estimated Casualties: 4,700 total (US 2,950; CS 1,750)
20Manassas – Result…The Northern public was shocked at the unexpected defeat of their army when an easy victory had been widely anticipated. Both sides quickly came to realize the war would be longer and more brutal than they had imagined. On July 22 President Lincoln signed a bill that provided for the enlistment of another 500,000 men for up to three years of service.The reaction in the Confederacy was more muted. There was little public celebration as the Southerners realized that despite their victory, the greater battles that would inevitably come would mean greater losses for their side as well.
22Emancipation Proclamation Issued by President Lincoln on January 1, 1863 “Freed” enslaved people who lived in all areas that were “in rebellion against the United States” Reaction was mixed…
23Election of 1864Democratic Party held its Convention in Chicago, and chose GEORGE MCCLELLAN the nominee Republican Party chose Lincoln, with Andrew Johnson (Union Democrat from Tennessee) as his running mate
24FINAL EVENTSLincoln began his second term as President in March 1865 By April, Confederate officials had fled Richmond Finally, Lee surrendered his Army to Grant at Appomatox Court House, Virginia, April 9