2The Russo-Japanese War 1904Russia VS JapanWhat the?
3Causes for the WarThe Russo-Japanese War came about because of rivalry over dominance and control of ports in Korea and Manchuria. Expansionist PolicyRussia had a desire to claim an Ice free port.Both Russia and Japan wanted to claim control of Port Arthur.The Tsar saw the war as an opportunity to win back credibility with his people with a decisive victory. Thus discouraging the growing threat of an internal revolution.Began in 1904 when Japan attacked Port Arthur.
5Summary: The Russo-Japanese War CoursePort Arthur fell to Japan in January 1905Russian surrender of Mukden, February 1905Russian fleet destroyed at Tsushima, May Russian SurrenderCausesRussian expansionismNeed of an ice-free portDistraction from internal problemsOutcome Loss of Manchuria, Korea and Port ArthurReasons for Russian Defeat Underestimation of Japanese StrengthInadequate military planningPoor StrengthJapanese readiness, skill and spirit
6REASONS FOR 1905 REVOLUTION Governments own responsibility Repression Taxation IncompetentLeadershipSocial unrest-Economic Recession-Bad harvestsPeasants’ anger over mortgage repaymentsWorkers’ anger over unemployment and falling wagesRussia’s dismal performance against Japan
8FATHER GAPON1870 – Born1903 – Organized assembly Russian Workers supporting workers rights1904 – Involved in Mass Strike1905 – Led peaceful petition to the Tsar in January Bloody Sunday. Fled to Geneva. Returned St Petersburg1906 – Murdered by Okhrana (supposedly)OF NOTE: Gapon became a religious teacher at the St Olga children orphanage, from In 1902 Gapon was discharged, from his duties as a priest due to "moral sinfulness". Later, George Gapon married one of the girls from the orphanage, Maria Uzdaleva. The marriage remained unregistered, as a second marriage was forbidden to Orthodox priests. Debate that he was a double agent. Hanged see Murder Wall
9Bloody Sunday- Role of Gapon EVENTS OF 1905 – 1906Bloody Sunday- Role of GaponStrikes in Major cities Milyukov leads liberal groups in a ‘Union of Unions’Peasants seizure of land- Soviets formed- Mutinies in the services Return of Witte Tsar issues October Manifesto
10GOVERNMENT RECOVERYLiberals Placated – didn't enjoy mixing with workersOne middle class proprietor “ people abused his hospitality by molesting his daughters,urinating on his carpets and stealing everything they could carry”and October Manifesto offered concessionsPeasants – mortgage repayments reduced and eventually abolishedWorkers crushed – by returning forcesFundamental Laws – No law could come into force without ratification from the Tsar (April 1906)
11SIGNIFICANCE AND LESSONS OF 1905 REVOLUTION Revolutionaries not really involved – Lenin arrived at endTsarist regime survived relatively unscathed. Few concessionsLiberals and peasants accepted changesNo clear revolutionary leadership,unity or directionFirst broad-based challenge to Tsardom