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Information literacy B Lecture 4 Database and Spreadsheet Takeshi Tokuyama Tohoku University Graduate School of Information Sciences System Information Sciences Design and Analysis of Information Systems

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Database – Organized collection of data for one or more purposes – Mechanism to store large size of data to utilize(search and extract) easily – DNA database, Digital Library, Internet search database, Medical record, Music database, Address book Operation – Data collection – Database construction – Data management ○ Storing data, search, transaction – Data analysis and understanding Major database structures Relational Database, Functional Database, XML Database

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Database model Relational database model Hierarchical database modelNetwork model Link tables

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Relational Database One of database model or database constructed on the model Based on the theory of relational data model proposed by Edgar F. Codd in IBM(1970) Single data contains one or more values and a set of data form a table Easy to combine or extract data using key such as ID or name Generally, SQL(Structured Query Language) is used in operation of database SELECT Math ≧ 80 AND English ≧ 90 FROM Exam;

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Example of Relational Database: Sales Database Sales: 2010Dec Item1Item2Item3Item4Item5Item6Item7Item8Item9 Item 10 Hokkaido Aomori Iwate Miyagi Akita Yamagata Fukushima Ibaraki Tochigi Gunma Saitama Chiba Sales: 2010Jan Item1Item2Item3Item4Item5Item6Item7Item8Item9 Item 10 Hokkaido Aomori Iwate Miyagi Akita Yamagata Fukushima Ibaraki Tochigi Gunma Saitama Chiba Price Item1Item2Item3Item4Item5Item6Item7Item8Item9Item10 Cost price Selling price

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Development of Database Technology Data Collection, Database Construction Database Management System Developed Database System Developed Database System Data Warehousing Data Mining Data Warehousing Data Mining Web Database System Web Database System New Generation Connected Information System 1960s 1970s-Early 1980s Mid 1980s-TodayLate 1980s-Today 1990s-Today 2000s-Today

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What is EXCEL Application software of Microsoft Spreadsheet (idea was in 1960 th ) – VisCalc on Apple II (1979) changed the use of PC Specialized for data analysis – Calculation ○ Simple calculation ○ Math Functions – Data to graph – Data collection to Database(small DB) – Numeric data, character data Macro programming by VBA – Software programming ○ Accounting software, game and etc

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Startup Excel Start ↓ All Programs ↓ Microsoft Office ↓ Microsoft Office Excel 2010

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Data Entry Select a cell and enter Active cell Cell number – A1, C2 ○ Column – A, B, C, D, … ○ Row – 1, 2, 3, 4, … Sheet – Sheet index ○ Sheet1 Selected cell

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Data Entry Data in active cell is shown in math bar Math bar

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Simple Calculation Calc entered data(cell number) – A150 – A275 – A35 – A48 – A6=A1+A2 – A7=A2-A3 – A8=A3*A4 – A9=A1/A3 – A10=(A1+A3)*A4 – (A2+A4)/A3

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Simple Calculation Enter numbers directly into cell – C1=39+34 – C2=87-34 – C3=63*45 – C4=56/7 – C5=(45+34)/3 + (45/3)*12

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Calculation by Math Function Sum – E1=A1+A2+A3+A4 – E2=sum(A1:A4) Average – E3=(A1+A2+A3+A4)/4 – E4=E1/4 – E5=average(A1:A4) Max, Min – E6=max(A1:A4) – E7=min(A1:A4)

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Score Calculation Download score data Score data – Items ID, Japanese, English, Math, Sum, Average – 20 student(1, 2,…, 20)

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Simple calculation! Sum and Average Sheet: simplecalc

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Sum Enter a formula below =B2+C2+D2 Sheet: simplecalc

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Average =E2/3 =(B2+C2+D2)/3 or Sheet: simplecalc

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Format Cells Sheet: simplecalc Select a cell to format “Format Cells” Number ○ Select “Number” from “Category” and set Decimal places Set decimal places

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Copying Cells Copy – Formula and format are copied also. Sheet: simplecalc

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Calculate using Math Functions! Sum, Average, Max and Min Sheet: mathfunction

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Sum =sum(B2:D2) =sum(Cell range) Cell range ： B2 to D2 Sheet: mathfunction

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Average =average(B2:D2) =average(Cell range) Cell range ： B2 to D2 Sheet: mathfunction

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Math Function

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“Search for a function”

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