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Information literacy B Lecture 4 Database and Spreadsheet Takeshi Tokuyama Tohoku University Graduate School of Information Sciences System Information Sciences Design and Analysis of Information Systems

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Database – Organized collection of data for one or more purposes – Mechanism to store large size of data to utilize(search and extract) easily – DNA database, Digital Library, Internet search database, Medical record, Music database, Address book Operation – Data collection – Database construction – Data management ○ Storing data, search, transaction – Data analysis and understanding Major database structures Relational Database, Functional Database, XML Database

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Database model Relational database model Hierarchical database modelNetwork model Link tables

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Relational Database One of database model or database constructed on the model Based on the theory of relational data model proposed by Edgar F. Codd in IBM(1970) Single data contains one or more values and a set of data form a table Easy to combine or extract data using key such as ID or name Generally, SQL(Structured Query Language) is used in operation of database SELECT Math ≧ 80 AND English ≧ 90 FROM Exam;

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Example of Relational Database: Sales Database Sales: 2010Dec Item1Item2Item3Item4Item5Item6Item7Item8Item9 Item 10 Hokkaido11021885133253311711123365 Aomori1458931141104217889936263 Iwate126297970155113144211128236 Miyagi108922631002491345272208163 Akita15211333411534814713079201 Yamagata15093115166120462607711354 Fukushima206256109602306115723811782 Ibaraki2202631402502253024617115025 Tochigi153118574218619718211185225 Gunma23787137129199151128115163214 Saitama17658828626815819123470216 Chiba11658175237103723416537101 Sales: 2010Jan Item1Item2Item3Item4Item5Item6Item7Item8Item9 Item 10 Hokkaido1368419210217473517684105 Aomori12712263703522475246230253 Iwate2422512021417014225280253124 Miyagi147621725821875208224161111 Akita992211481881406918478172204 Yamagata14315718410516612978206164189 Fukushima148991054925363102113163185 Ibaraki496224051107223147199107140 Tochigi641591912412021521024912354 Gunma59871312118324936221263138 Saitama92131991932401051845274144 Chiba1185860462452069324055153 Price Item1Item2Item3Item4Item5Item6Item7Item8Item9Item10 Cost price874574785250184385456784890458 Selling price980870900500354450980800980650

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Development of Database Technology Data Collection, Database Construction Database Management System Developed Database System Developed Database System Data Warehousing Data Mining Data Warehousing Data Mining Web Database System Web Database System New Generation Connected Information System 1960s 1970s-Early 1980s Mid 1980s-TodayLate 1980s-Today 1990s-Today 2000s-Today

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What is EXCEL Application software of Microsoft Spreadsheet (idea was in 1960 th ) – VisCalc on Apple II (1979) changed the use of PC Specialized for data analysis – Calculation ○ Simple calculation ○ Math Functions – Data to graph – Data collection to Database(small DB) – Numeric data, character data Macro programming by VBA – Software programming ○ Accounting software, game and etc

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Startup Excel Start ↓ All Programs ↓ Microsoft Office ↓ Microsoft Office Excel 2010

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Data Entry Select a cell and enter Active cell Cell number – A1, C2 ○ Column – A, B, C, D, … ○ Row – 1, 2, 3, 4, … Sheet – Sheet index ○ Sheet1 Selected cell

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Data Entry Data in active cell is shown in math bar Math bar

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Simple Calculation Calc entered data(cell number) – A150 – A275 – A35 – A48 – A6=A1+A2 – A7=A2-A3 – A8=A3*A4 – A9=A1/A3 – A10=(A1+A3)*A4 – (A2+A4)/A3

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Simple Calculation Enter numbers directly into cell – C1=39+34 – C2=87-34 – C3=63*45 – C4=56/7 – C5=(45+34)/3 + (45/3)*12

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Calculation by Math Function Sum – E1=A1+A2+A3+A4 – E2=sum(A1:A4) Average – E3=(A1+A2+A3+A4)/4 – E4=E1/4 – E5=average(A1:A4) Max, Min – E6=max(A1:A4) – E7=min(A1:A4)

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Score Calculation Download score data Score data – Items ID, Japanese, English, Math, Sum, Average – 20 student(1, 2,…, 20)

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Simple calculation! Sum and Average Sheet: simplecalc

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Sum Enter a formula below =B2+C2+D2 Sheet: simplecalc

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Average =E2/3 =(B2+C2+D2)/3 or Sheet: simplecalc

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Format Cells Sheet: simplecalc Select a cell to format “Format Cells” Number ○ Select “Number” from “Category” and set Decimal places Set decimal places

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Copying Cells Copy – Formula and format are copied also. Sheet: simplecalc

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Calculate using Math Functions! Sum, Average, Max and Min Sheet: mathfunction

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Sum =sum(B2:D2) =sum(Cell range) Cell range ： B2 to D2 Sheet: mathfunction

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Average =average(B2:D2) =average(Cell range) Cell range ： B2 to D2 Sheet: mathfunction

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Math Function

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“Search for a function”

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