2 vocabularyAnaconda Plan – The strategy during the Civil War to blockade goods to the SouthBlockade runners – low-lying steamships; painted gray to match the sea, ran supplies through blockades during the WarConscription – compulsory drafting of people to war; military draftDecree – an order legislated by a ruler or government authorityDesert – to leave without permission, as in a soldier leaving the armyDistiller – someone who brews homemade alcoholIronclads – ships heavily armored with ironSubjugation – bringing a group of people under the control of another
3 Theme 1: Civil War Begins Tension Rises1860 Abraham Lincoln elected PresidentSouth Carolina secedes from the UnionJanuary 1861, five other southern states secedeTexas leaves in FebruarySeven states formed Confederate States of America in MarchJefferson Davis elected as President of the CSA
4 Theme 1 NC is divided: Union vs. Confederacy Those for: plantation owners who wanted to preserve and expand plantation agriculture, which included maintaining slavery. Lincoln seen as a threatThose against: most NC residents were independent farmersOnly one in four NC farmers owned slavesOnly 4K owned more than 20 slaves (considered plantations)
5 Theme 1NC was willing to wait and see what Lincoln would do regarding slaverySaid he did not want it to expand, did NOT call for its immediate endApril 12, 1861, Confederates opened fire at Ft. Sumter, SCLincoln ordered state militias to join the US ArmyNC’s governor led the charge to secede.Strong Union loyalists did not want to fight fellow SouthernersMay 20, 1861 NC secedes from the Union, (next to last)
6 Theme 1 The First Battles Both sides thought war would be brief Battle of ManassasUnion confident of victory, citizens came to watchUnion attack was stopped and pushed back causing 5000 killed or wounded
7 Theme 1 The Anaconda Plan Union forces would set up a naval blockade Union soldiers would capture trading cities on the coast and Mississippi River ports.Rather than invade, surround and block any contact with the outside worldSouthern economy was agricultural (they did not manufacture goods)No trade = no supplies
8 Theme 1 Blockades Squeeze North Carolina Union troops on the Outer Banks in August 1861New Bern captured and used as Union HQFree blacks and escaped slaves flocked to coastal townsAssisted the Union troops with war effort
9 Theme 1: Homework Questions What was NC’s reaction to secession?What caused NC to finally secede?What was the Union’s plan to stop the War?How did this plan effect NC?How were blacks involved in the war?
10 Theme 2: War and Politics EmancipationEarly on Lincoln did not want to alienate border states who were slave statesIssued the Emancipation Proclamation, January 1, 1863.Declared all slaves in Confederate States freeBlacks can become Union soldiersDid NOT free slaves in border statesSouthern states ignoredNorthern soldiers now fighting for Union and slavery, mixed responses
11 Theme 2 North Carolina’s Black Regiments Troops recruited and trained in New BernAround 5K black troops from NC served in the Union armyAround 200K black troops served in the Union army during the Civil War
12 Theme 2 Hardships on the Home Front Union blockades isolated South from trade with the rest of the worldCitizens asked to make sacrificesConfederacy is seen as a burden to most NC residents who are small farmers
13 Theme 2 Conscription and Taxes Conscription (military draft) 18 – 35 were drafted into the army for 3 yearsTax-in-kind Farmers gave up a portion of their harvest to feed troopsSmall farmers most effectedDepended on family for farm laborSubsistence farming, grew what they ateShortages caused increases in prices
14 Theme 2 Laws did not seem fair: Preserving plantation agriculture helped the wealthyOrdinary citizens were effected the mostPlanters with more than 20 slaves were exempt from conscriptionCould hire someone to fight in your placeZebulon B. Vance, NC governor during the War said conscription made this “A rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight”
15 Theme 2 Tar Heels Keep Fighting Tar Heel nickname in colonial era when NC produces lots of tar and pitchOthers say NC soldiers stuck to their positions as if they had tar on their heelsAfter the war used as a negative term for barefoot, uneducated backwoodsmenNC slogan after the Civil War: NC troops were “first at Bethel, farthest at Gettysburg and last at Appomattox.”
16 Theme 2 Politics at Home Zebulon Vance, Conservative Party Whigs and Democrats who opposed secession and were unhappy with the WarVance caught between demands of Confederate government and concerns of the state’s citizensNC sent more troops to the Confederate army than any other southern state but none of the leaders were from NCVance corresponded and fought with Jefferson Davis to protect NC as much as possible.
17 Theme 2 Struggling to Survive Women and children on small farms suffered the most;Had to do all the farm work and provide for familiesWrote letters to husbands and/or Gov. VanceWomen in towns faired better;Could find work cooking, sewing uniformsNursing became a popular professionThousands of sick and wounded soldiers overwhelmed hospitals in the Union and Confederacy.
18 Theme 2: Homework Questions What new cause did Union soldiers fight for after January 1, 1863?Did the Emancipation Proclamation call for the end of slavery in all states?What was the southern states response?What two issues hurt NC’s small farmers the most?How did plantation owners avoid the draft?What two groups was Zebulon Vance caught between while he was governor of NC?How were women on farms and in cities changed by the War?
19 Theme 3: The War Comes to an End Soldiers begin to leaveWorrying about family more than war, soldiers began to desert the army and head homeNC had large numbers of desertersHad the most troopsFought in VA, which was close to homeNC provided more troops to the Confederacy than any other stateDeserters received help from QuakersMany fled to the mountains where people were willing to help deserters
20 Theme 3 A Turn for the Worse Confederacy began to run out of soldiers and resourcesWar was unpopular on both sidesConfederacy hoped a few big victories would convince Union leaders to stop fightingGettysburgLee goes to Pennsylvania to take the war to Union territorySingle deadliest battle in US history (3 days)Inspired Gettysburg address one of Lincoln’s greatest speechesCrushed Lee’s hopes of a quick end to the WarVicksburgGrant captured Vicksburgthe last open port on the Mississippi RiverMississippi River is under control of the Union forcesNorthern morale rises, Southern hopes fall
21 Theme 3 A Movement for Peace After Union victories some in NC called for peaceNC was the only Confederate state with an active peace movement during the WarWilliam Woods Holden proposed keeping slavery but discussing a return to the UnionRuns against Vance for governor in 1864 but loses.
22 Theme 3Nearing the EndConfederate army lost men to injury and disease, no one was left to enlistUnion moving through Confederate territoryConfederates desperate; begin to discuss allowing slaves to fightFt. Fisher falls in January 1865Union General William Tecumseh Sherman enters NC
23 Theme 3 The March to the Sea Sherman’s “total war” Destroy military targets and break civilian moraleSherman told troops to destroy everything in their path – homes, crops, livestock and moreBurned Atlanta and marched to the Savannah, destroying everything along the wayLived on what they could take and destroyed the restSherman’s march becomes highly resented for generations!
24 Theme 3 The Final Battle Bentonville, March 19, 20, 21 Confederate General Johnston attacked Sherman’s forces20K to 60K troops, Confederates overwhelmedWar’s last major battleApril 1865 Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in VirginiaTwo weeks later Johnston surrenders to Sherman outside Durham, NC
25 Theme 3 Sadness and Joy Confederates mourn defeat Cities like New Bern, with large black populations, celebratedOnly 5 days after Lee’s surrender Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth
26 Theme 3 Effects of the War Over 40K men in NC were killed or died of diseaseMost soldiers = most deaths in ConfederacyFormer soldiers wanted their old lives backFormer slaves were anxious to start their new livesNC was in a state of ruined roads, farms, and economy.