3 Italian UnificationFall of Rome – Italy became a group of competing states that are ruled by AustriaLeaders of UnificationGiuseppe Mazzini – created nationalist group called Young Italy (heart)Camillo di Cavor – founded nationalist newspaper called Il Risorgimento (brain)Giuseppe Girbaldi – led a military group called the “Red Shirts” to gain control of most of Italy (sword)
4 German UnificationRevolution of 1848 – Germans revolt against Prussian King Frederick Wilhelm IVHe promised to compromise on democracyLater he backed out of his promiseZollverein – an economic alliance among most German states in after king didn’t keep promisesOtto von Bismark – became the Prime Minister of PrussiaMade goals and policies called realpolitik (politics based on reality)Unification would come from “Blood & Iron”
6 Austria-Hungary Ruled by the Hapsburg family & Metternich Metternich – powerful voice at Congress of ViennaFought to keep monarchy in AustriaSucceeded for a few yearsRevolutions in France, Italy, & Germany inspire revolts in the Austrian EmpireMany different nationalities living within the Austrian Empire wanted Independence
7 RussiaLast of the Czars of Russia – Nicholas I, Alexander II, Alexander III, Nicholas IITried reforms but could not hold back revolutionary leaders & revoltsMarxists – group calling for change in RussiaLed by Karl Marx = wanted to create a socialist republicSocialist republic – society in which there would be no private property & the state would collectively own & distribute goodsRevolution of 1905 – workers strike, university students protest, peasants rebel against landlordsOctober Manifesto = official promise by Czar Nicholas IIResponse to Revolution of 1905 promised Russian Constitution & reform
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