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 After the War of 1812, America experienced an “Era of Good Feelings” characterized by:  An extremely popular president  The emergence of a 2 nd generation.

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Presentation on theme: " After the War of 1812, America experienced an “Era of Good Feelings” characterized by:  An extremely popular president  The emergence of a 2 nd generation."— Presentation transcript:

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2  After the War of 1812, America experienced an “Era of Good Feelings” characterized by:  An extremely popular president  The emergence of a 2 nd generation of U.S. leaders  Dominance by the Republicans  A surge in nationalism that united the country & improved U.S. industry & transportation

3  James Monroe was elected president in 1816 & 1820 with a clear set of goals:  To promote national unity  To promote America’s power in the world  Republican dominance of the presidency & Congress helped push through a series of new laws He appointed Democrats, Federalists, Southerners, Northerners to his cabinet; including Sec of State John Q Adams

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5  By 1816, a wave of new leaders shaped the antebellum era:  Henry Clay (Republican, KY) :  Represented the “West”  Speaker of the House  Proponent of national economic development (“American System" to promote industry & markets for farmers)

6  By 1816, a new wave of leaders shaped the antebellum era:  John C. Calhoun (Republican, SC):  Represented the “South”  Sec of War; VP  He was the nation's leading proponent of states' rights - embraced nullification

7  By 1816, a new wave of leaders shaped the antebellum era:  Daniel Webster (Whig, MA):  Represented the “North”  Congressman; Sec of State  Strong proponent of Nationalism & strong critic of states' rights While they did not always agree, this “Great Triumvirate” of Clay, Calhoun, & Webster enthusiastically supported national economic development

8  The Dem-Repubs traditionally represented limited gov’t, states' rights, & strict construction  But, without Federalist opposition, the Dem-Repubs adopted many traditionally Federalist policies:  National economic development  A permanent army  Transportation improvements  A national university in D.C.

9 American System  Henry Clay’s American System in 1816 proposed the creation of: 2 nd Bank of the U.S.  The 2 nd Bank of the U.S. to stabilize U.S. currency  Tariff of 1816  Tariff of 1816 to promote U.S. industry & limit the importation of British manufactured goods  A nat’l system of roads & canals  The “American System” helped unify North, South, & West Jefferson let the charter of the 1 st BUS expire in st significant protective tariff in U.S. history All were proposed by Hamilton & opposed by Republicans in the 1790s Helped pave the way for future RR construction & western Indian removal

10  John Marshall ( ) used the Supreme Court to strengthen the power of the national gov’t:  Exerted the power of the national gov’t over the states  Rejected the claim that states could check powers of the national gov’ t  Affirmed the loose construction argument of the elastic clause

11  Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819):  Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819): gov’t cannot interfere with contracts between private parties Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819): Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819):  McCullough v. Maryland (1819):  McCullough v. Maryland (1819): Congress possesses powers not explicitly stated in Constitution; Congressional laws are supreme to decisions made by the states McCullough v. Maryland (1819): McCullough v. Maryland (1819):  Gibbons v. Odgen (1824):  Gibbons v. Odgen (1824): interstate commerce is power reserved for national gov’t Gibbons v. Odgen (1824): Gibbons v. Odgen (1824):

12 President Monroe & Sec of State JQ Adams developed a nationalist foreign policy agenda Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817): to avoid conflicts along the Great Lakes, the U.S. agreed not to take Canada & Britain not to invade the U.S The Convention of 1818 set the US/Canada border set at the 49º

13  Monroe & JQ Adams turned their attention to acquiring Florida:  Andrew Jackson took it upon himself to end Indian attacks on Georgia from Spanish Florida Adams-Onis Treaty  Jackson’s military advances & U.S. success in the War of 1812 helped force the Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) that ceded Florida & Oregon to U.S. Also, Spain assumed Florida would eventually be annexed U.S. agreed to pay Spain $5 million & renounced claims to Texas

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15  When Latin American nations revolted against Spain, the U.S. supported the new republics:  European powers disliked these liberal rebellions & were tempted to re-conquer them  Monroe Doctrine  Monroe Doctrine (1823) warned European nations to stay out of the Western Hemisphere & the U.S. will not interfere in Europe The U.S. will protect Latin American independence The U.S. will act independently & will protect its sphere of influence

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18 The end of the War of 1812 unleashed a rush of pioneers into the western territories The 2 nd BUS made credit available for farmers to purchase land Many settled in the West to escape overpopulation, rising land prices, & worn-out soil in the East

19 Congress quickly admitted 5 states to the Union: Louisiana (1812) Indiana (1816) Mississippi (1817) Illinois (1818) Alabama (1819) By 1810, 1/7 th of the U.S. population lived in the West; By 1840 over 1/3 rd lived in the West

20  The Era of Good Feelings started with a wave of national unity, but sectional disputes between the North & South emerged & would dominate politics for next 40 years  Disagreed over the use of protective tariffs, especially when cotton prices fell in 1820s  Disagreed over slavery in the western territories & states

21  In 1817, Missouri applied for statehood as a slave state & revealed U.S. sectional rivalries:  North resented Southern control of presidency & its 3/5-inflated representation in House of Reps  South feared a Northern conspiracy to end all slavery  Equality had been maintained by alternating admission of “free” & “slave” states added to the US Population was growing more rapidly in North, so House of Reps favored Northerners NY rep Tallmadge wanted Missouri only if its state constitution provided for the gradual elimination of slavery

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23  Missouri Compromise (1820):  Missouri became a slave state  Maine (which broke from Mass) was admitted as free state  Slavery was banned elsewhere in the Louisiana Purchase above the latitude of 36°30'  The Missouri controversy exposed a deep rift between North & South

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25  The “Era of Good Feelings” led to:  An improved American economy  Better transportation  More territory & more clearly- defined borders  A foreign policy in Latin America  But…sectional problems between the North & South

26  Both Alexander Hamilton & John Marshall were Federalists who believed in a strong national gov’t. Who was more influential in shaping American history? Explain  Which policy will be more important in U.S. history: Monroe’s foreign OR domestic policy?

27  Essential Question  Essential Question:  How did U.S. foreign policy change from the presidencies of Washington to Monroe?  RQ Ch 10B ( )


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