Presentation on theme: "Nationalism and Sectionalism Part 2. The American System After the war of 1812, President Madison planned to help unify America while creating a stable."— Presentation transcript:
Nationalism and Sectionalism Part 2
The American System After the war of 1812, President Madison planned to help unify America while creating a stable economy. His plan became known as the “American System” –Develop transportation systems Roads, Canals, and eventually railroads to encourage trade –Establish protective tariffs To help American industry compete against Europe. Also helped to pay for transportation –Resurrect the National Bank The 2 nd Bank of the United States to lend money to businesses.
Transportation States built roads within their own state. The Federal Government built roads thru multiple states like the “National Road.” It connected the east to the west.
Transportation - Canals The Erie Canal was one of many canals built between The Erie Canal connected the Hudson River north of New York City to Buffalo, NY and the Great Lakes. Flatboats were pulled by horses or pushed with poles
The Erie Canal
Transportation - Railroads The first locomotive, Tom Thumb, was built in By 1850 there was over 9,000 miles of Railroad tracks in the United States.
Election of 1816 D.R. James Monroe – 183 FED Rufus King - 34 This is the last election that the Federalist will have a candidate. The last time they won was 1796.
“ ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS ” “ Era of Good Feelings ” –James Monroe - President ( ) –Monroe wanted worked hard to stop the fighting between Democratic- Republicans and Federalist. The Federalist party was very weak at this point and had no choice but to go along with it. The Federalist themselves soon were dissolved as a party. Monroe
Court Cases Increase Federal Government Power McCulloch v. Maryland -Maryland wanted to tax the National Bank. -Supreme Court said “No!” -States had no control over Federal Government. Gibbons v. Ogden -Argument over shipping rights on Hudson River between N.J. and N.Y. -Supreme Court ruled that only Federal Government could regulate interstate commerce. (Trade)
Settling National Borders 1817 Rush-Bagot Treaty, Britain and the U.S. withdrawn armies and navies from Great Lakes. Convention of 1818 set Northern border with Canada at 49° N. Latitude. Florida! In 1817 Andrew Jackson and his army were ordered to the Spanish Florida border to stop Indian raids into Georgia and run-away slaves from escaping into the Florida swamps. Jackson invaded Florida without permission!
The Adams-Onis Treaty To avoid war between the U.S. and Spain, the two countries signed the Adams-Onis Treaty in Florida became part of the United States. It also settled an ongoing argument over the western boundary of the Louisiana Purchase of Texas was part of New Spain, not the United States like many Americans wanted… In 1810, Americans in “West Florida” (now parts of Mississippi and Alabama had seized control of the territory from the Spanish. In was soon annexed into the U.S. by Madison who claimed it was part of the Louisiana Purchase.
Monroe Doctrine In the early 1800s many countries in the western hemisphere were achieving their independence from European nations. Mexico for example won independence in 1821 from Spain. President Monroe issued a proclamation that became known as the Monroe Doctrine -Europe should stay out of Latin American and the Caribbean. The Americas were now closed to colonization. The U.S. would protect its American interests and stay out of European affairs.
Nationalism vs. Sectionalism Nationalism -Pride in your country. Loyalty and support to the United States as a whole. Sectionalism -Loyalty to your section or part of the country in which you live. Example: Southerners support for slavery.
The MISSOURI Compromise Missouri statehood controversy -The people of Missouri wanted to become a state and they also wanted the right to own slaves. -There were 11 free and 11 slaves states in 1820 so this would upset a balance that had been created. -This divided the country into a sectionalized argument over slavery. North vs. South, Free vs. Slavery. Compromise: When two sides come to a solution to a problem by each giving up a part of their demands
The Compromise Henry Clay of Kentucky offered a compromise –Missouri could enter as a slave state. –Maine (then part of Massachusetts) would enter the Union as a free state. –The part of the Louisiana Purchase West and North of Missouri would be free while the Arkansas Territory would be slave. The compromise would put off the slavery fight for a while, but we all know where this is headed!
King Cotton Cotton was in great demand and highly labor intensive. The slave population grew to provide labor Large plantation owners acquired hundred of slaves Only 1/3 of southerners owned slaves and only 1/10 of them owned more than 20. Most farmers were poor whites farming a few acres
Nat Turner’s Slave Revolt In 1831, Nat Turner led a slave revolt in Virginia. Claiming God was on his side he and his followers murdered 55 whites before they were captured by an armed militia. Turner was executed and some 200 blacks (both slave and free) were killed in retaliation.
Aftermath of the Slave Revolt Laws were quickly passed throughout the south that forbade teaching blacks to read or write. Free Blacks (Non-slaves) lost almost all of their rights and most had to move to the North out of fear they would be enslaved. Why was reading a threat to whites?
Two Founding Fathers die John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, two of the most important men in the early American history both die in ON THE SAME DAY!!! The two had been friends during the Revolution, bitter enemies during the early republic, and again friends after They wrote hundreds of letters to each other until they died. Adams' last words were “Thomas Jefferson still survives” JULY 4 th !