4AND Apples and oranges are very healty..(noun) It is useful and cheap.(adj.)He came and see me in my office.(action)I want to quit and find a new job.(infinitive)Diving and water skiing are my favourite sporting activities.(gerund)She cooked the meal and I brought the drinks.(sentence)
5AND : cause&effect-contrast-conditional They have broken up recently,and they don’t want to see one another anymore.(cause & effect)He owns six companies, and I am just an ordinary worker.(contrast)Do that again and I will call the police.(conditional)
6BUT It is good but expensive.(adj.) He saw me but didn’t talk to me.(action)I like singing but not dancing.(gerund)The film was nice but it was a bit long.(sentence)
7‘But’ with all,none,every, any,no…means except ! Ex:Many young peole eat nothing but fast-food these days.Ex:I invited everybody but him to the party.Ex:None of the students failed but you.
8YETIt was cold outside,yet my Russian friend did not hesitate to go swimming.She didn’t feel well,yet she still went to work.He drove the car fast yet carefully.
9OR I need a hammer or a piece of stone.(noun) I will watch a film or read a book today at home.(action)My wife was too nervous or anxious when she was taking the test.In the end she failed.(adj)To be or not to be.That’s the question.(infinitive)
10I prefer going out,or playing computer games in my free time.(gerund) I will transfer the money to your account,or I will bring it today when you are in the office.(sentence)OR = OTHERWISEEX:You will leave my house right now or I will call the police.
11SOHis speech was full of technical terms,so nobody understood anything.She didn’t feel well,so she didn’t go to work.They were making a lot of noise,so their father came and hushed them up.His company had been in the red for 2 years,so he commited suicide.
12FOR (reason cl.(not begining of the sent.)formal ) The current economic figures have been updated recently,for the economic trends continually change.She didn’t go to work,for she didn’t feel well.The president yelled at the ministers,for they were having an arguement.
13NOR (nor + aux. +subj)He didn’t try apologizing to me,nor did he care about it.He doesn’t like meat,nor does he like fish.She herself didn’t watch the film,nor did she let us watch it.He refuses to take does he try to eat less.
15BOTH….ANDEx:Both the teacher and the students were happy with the exam results.Ex:Today,I will both take my final exam and see the doctor.Ex:It is very difficult to find a second-hand car that is both good and cheap.Ex:Both the driver and the passengers were badly injured.Ex:Yesterday I both visited an art exhibition and went to the cinema.
16NOT ONLY…BUT ALSOEx:Not only his sister but also his his friends were quite worried about him.Ex:Not only his friends but also his teacher was quite worried about him.Ex:He not only stole a car,but also had an accident with it.Ex:Not only the driver but also the passengers were badly injured.Ex:I not only visited an art exhibition but also went to the cinema.
17EITHER….OREither my father or my friends are going to meet you at the airport.Either my friends or my father is going to meet you at the airport.You can call either the neighbours or the police when you hear that strange noise.Either my sister or my friend or my mum must have taken my book.Ex:She has either fallen asleep or gone somewhere.Ex:She can’t either speak or walk.(she can neither speak nor walk…..
18NEITHER…NORNeither Mike nor his parents were willing to stay at home on New Year’s Eve.I neither sent an nor talked to her on the phone about the new order.I can persuade neither my father nor my brother to go to Spain to watch the final match.Mum,I want neither dinner,nor conversation,nor a shower.I just want to go straight to bed.She phoned neither that day,nor the next day.
19WHETER…ORHe asked me wheter I preferred staying at home or going out that night.She wondered wheter I spent my money or put aside.She wanted to know wheter I read the book or watch the film.I am going to visit my uncle in the hospital wheter you agree or not.
21TIME John will study abroad when he graduates John will have completed his project by the time the new academic year begins.John had cleaned the whole house before he went to the cinema.John ran across an old friend of his while he was driving to work yesterday.He complains that it rains whenever he washes his car.John has been working for an international company in London since/eversince he graduated from university in 1999.
22REASONThe government had to take further steps because the inflation had reached an alarming level.Now that you have completed the project,you can start thinking how to present it.(mademki)Since/As she felt a bit ill,she decided to call the doctor.(-den dolayı)Seeing that he has fulfilled all the requirements,he is very likely to be selected by the committee.(mademki)
23The traffic was totally congested due to the fact that two lorries had crashed into each other on the bridge.(-den dolayı)In as much as she is their teacher ,she is mainly responsible for the behaviour of these students.(mademki,çünkü,-den dolayı)
24DIRECT CONTRASTSome people believe that green tea relaxes their muscles,whereas others think it improves their memory.
25CONCESSIVE CONTRASTHe was determined to attend the conference although he was very ill.Eventhough/Though the government took some measures,they failed to prevent the dollar from falling down sharply.Despite the fact that the working conditions were unbearable,the young man continued to work in the factory.She won’t accept even if you give her a diamond ring
26PURPOSEThe speaker is showing some pictures so that/in order that the participants can visualize what they have heard.My father gave me his credit card so that I could do shopping on holiday.We should buy another bottle of coke in case your friend comes to dinner.The authorities took more strict measures lest the problem of child labour should grow worse.The suspect can not go out for fear that the police will see him.
27MANNERThe young lady got divorced (just) as her parents had done years before.John looks as if he he is tired.(real situation)The dog sounded as if/as though as it was suffering.(real situation)You can’t talk to me as if/as though I were your child.(unreal.s)
28RESULTThe exam was so hard that only a few students were able to pass.The boy solved the problem so carefully that he didn’t make any mistakes.It was such a complicated situation that nobody knew what to do.It was such a good weather that everybody went out.
29CONDITION If you want to pass the prep class you have to study harder. I will accept their job offer unless the pay is too low.You can stay in my flat as long as you share the expenses.I can lend you some money providing that you pay me back by next Friday.I am going to visit my uncle in the hospital wheter you agree or not.