2Conjunctions are joining words, it joins together sentences or words. Join words: n., adj., adv., v., and sentenceEx:I saw a man and a boy.She spoke and laughed.She speaks gently and softly.He was hungry and angry.
3Join phrases together with sentences. Ex:-We began on the journey full of hope and happy together.-It looks as if it is going to rain.-Despite the traffic, we arrive on times.
4Join sentences together with sentences Ex:-Both he and I spoke at meeting.-She worked all night, but she didn’t finish the job.-Neither the man nor the woman speaks English.-Either he or his friends have money.
5Join two clauses into one and can stand alone. Ex:-The corruption government has got to go before it does any more damage economic.
6One conjunction is enough to join two clauses. Ex:-Because I like you, I tried to help you.-As you know, I work very hard.
7Relative Pronouns Ex: -He thanks me for the money that I give him. -The house where I live is very comfortable.
8Types of Conjunctions1. Co-ordinating Conjunctions: (Joining the equal rank or important sentences or clauses)2. Subordinating Conjunctions: (Joining the unequal rank or important sentences or clauses)3. Correlative Conjunctions: (Used in the pairs to complete the sentences)4. A conjunctive adverb: (an adverb used to connect two clauses showing cause and effect, sequence, contrast, comparison, or other relationships.
9Coordinating Conjunctions And, but, or, yet, for, nor, so, (while)-FANBOYS/FONYBAS/YAFNOBS-
10Example I love to go with you, but I have something to do. He spent his summer studying basic math, and then he went back to his hometown.Rocky refuses to eat dry cat food, nor will he touch a saucer of squid eyeball stew.
11Even though I added cream to the squid eyeball stew, Rocky ignored his serving, so I got a spoon and ate it myself.Rocky terrorizes the poodles next door, yet he adores the German shepherd across the street.I hate to waste a single drop of squid eyeball stew, for it is expensive and time-consuming to make.
12Subordinating Conjunctions Ex: as long as, as soon as, till, until, after, before, when, while, where, wherever, as far as, although, though, even though, as-as, more-than, than, because, since, in order that, in case, if, unless, so long as
13Examples: -He works hard though he is not well. -He ran as if his life depends on it.-Stay where you are. I go wherever you may go.-He sold the car because it as too old.-You can use my car as/so long as you drive carefully.-I will not forget it till I die.-You should play games in order that your health may improve.
14After although, we use S. + V. -Although it rained a lot, they enjoyed themselves.-I didn’t get the job although I had all the necessary qualifications.After in spite of, despite, we use a noun, a pronoun or –ing-In spite of the rain, we enjoyed our holiday.-I didn’t get the job in spite of having all the necessary qualifications.-She wasn’t well, but in spite of / despite this she went to work.
15Compare in spite of / despite with because of / although We went out in spite of / despite the rain.We didn’t go out because of the rain.Although the traffic was bad, I arrived on time.In spite of the traffic, I arrived on time.I couldn’t sleep although I was very tired.I couldn’t sleep despite being very tired.
16Remembering Note Sometimes we use though instead of although. Ex: -I didn’t get the job though I had all the necessary qualifications.(S) The house isn’t very nice. I like the garden though. (=but I like the garden.)(S) I see him everyday. I’ve never spoken to him though. (=but I’ve never spoken to him.)Even though I was really tired, I couldn’t sleep.(Not ‘even’ alone) It is a stronger form of although.
17In case, unless, as long as, just in case Situation: John is a football referee. He always wears two watches during a game because it is possible that one watch will stop.Ex: He wears two watches in case one of them stops.-I don’t want to go out in case she phones.(=because it is possible she will phone.)-I’ll draw a map for you in case you can’t find our house.(=because it is possible you won’t be able find it.)
18We use ‘just in case’ for a smaller possibility: -I don’t think it will rain but I’ll take an umbrella just in case. (just in case= just in case it rains.)-I don’t want to go out tonight in case Ann phones.Note: We don’t use will after in case.We can use ‘in case’ + simple past to say why somebody did something:-We bought some more food in case Tom came. (= because it was possible Tom would come.)-We rang the bell again in case they hadn’t heard it the first time.
19In case of‘In case of…’ is not the same as ‘in case’. In case of = if there is…’-In case of fire, please leave the building as quickly as possible. (=if there is a fire.)-In case of emergency, telephone this number. (=if there is an emergency.)
20Compare ‘in case’ and ‘if-clause’ We’ll buy some more food in case Tom comes.We’ll buy some more food if Tom comes.I’ll give you my phone number in case you need to contact.You can phone me at the hotel if you need to contact me.
21In case:(=perhaps Tom will come; we’ll buy some more food now, whether he comes or not; then we’ll already have the food if he comes.)If:(=perhaps Tom will come; if he comes, we’ll buy some more food; if he doesn’t come we won’t buy any more food.)
22Unless Study this situation: The club is for members only. You can’t go in unless you are a member.I’ll see you tomorrow unless I have to work late.We’ll be late unless we hurry.‘Shall I tell Sue what you said?’ ‘Not unless she asks you.’ (=only she asks you.)Note: unless= except if
23As long as / so long as provided (that)/ providing (that) The above words mean ‘if’ or ‘on condition that.’ Ex:-You can use my car as long as/so long as you drive carefully.(=you can use my car but you must drive carefully.)-Traveling by car is convenient provided (that) / providing (that) you have somewhere to park.(=but only if you have somewhere to park.)
24Provided (that) / providing (that) she studies hard, she’ll pass her exams. (=she must study hard-if she does, she will pass.)
25Understand the difference between coordination and subordination
26main Clause , + coordinating conjunction + main Clause. A coordinating conjunction can join two main clauses that a writer wants to emphasize equally.The pattern for coordination looks like this:main Clause , + coordinating conjunction + main Clause.
27main clause + N+ subordinate clause. Subordination, however, emphasizes the idea in the main clause more than the one in the subordinate clause.Generally, the patterns look like these:main clause + N+ subordinate clause.subordinate Clause, + N+ main Clause.
28Correlative Conjunctions Ex:both-and, not only-but also, as-as, either-or, neither-nor, whether-or, so-that, such – that.
29Both he and I spoke at the meeting. Not only he, but also I spoke at the meeting.He gave me not only money but also advice.She must either follow my instructions or resign.Neither John nor Robin came to the party.Note:-There are shop on either side. =Both side.-Either train goes to Karat. =Both train.-Neither of the boys breaks the window.-Either of them is telling a lie.
30As a father loves his children, so does mother love her children. She is not so lovely as you say.The exam is so difficult that the student can’t do it.Last year Jack and Jill spend their holiday by the sea. It rained a lot but they enjoyed themselves.She is such a good friend that I don’t want to make her sad.
31Conjunctive Adverbs It is an adverb that connects two clauses Conjunctive Adverbs It is an adverb that connects two clauses. Conjunctive adverbs show cause and effect, sequence, contrast, comparison, or other relationships.accordingly, furthermore, moreover, similarly, also, hence, namely, still, anyway, however, nevertheless, then, besides, incidentally, next, thereafter, certainly, indeed, nonetheless, therefore, consequently, instead, now, thus, finally, likewise, otherwise, undoubtedly, further, meanwhile.
32ExampleThese things really happened; otherwise, I wouldn't have claimed to have seen them.I wanted to go; however, I was too busy.They want to make it happened; therefore, they all tried their best to finish their missions.End of Conjunctions