2 Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns DEMONSTRATE, which means “show.” Which flag? – THIS flag.
3 English has two sets of demonstrative pronouns: Do you wantTHIS apple? No, I want THATapple.
4 But what if there are TWO apples? You wouldn’t say, “I want this apples” or “I want that apples.”In English, you have to change demonstrative adjectives to make them agree in number with the noun:I want THIS apple I want THESE apples.I want THAT apple I want THOSE apples.
5 Spanish has THREE demonstrative adjectives: Do you want this apple?¿Quieres esta manzana?No.Do you want that apple?¿Quieres esa manzana?No. I want that apple way over there.No. Quiero aquella manzana.
6 Spanish Demonstrative Adjectives: SINGULARPLURALMASCULINEFEMININEesteestaestosestasthis; theseeseesaesosesasthat; thoseaquelaquellaaquellosaquellasthat; those (over there)Watch out for the masculine forms: remember that, while the masculine singular ends in –e, the plural ends in –os. Don’t get mixed up and write “esto” or “estes.”Notice that the only difference between “este” and “ese”, “esta” and “esa,” etc., is the “t”. Take the “t” out of “este” (this), and you have “ese” (that).Memory jogger: ‘This’ and ‘these’ have t’s; ‘that’ and ‘those’ don’t.”In other words, the words that mean “this” and “these” have t’s in them (este, esta, estos, estas); the words that mean “that” and “those” don’t have t’s in them (ese, esa, esos, esas).
7 “Este” (“this”) is near the speaker. “Ese” (“that”) is not near the speaker.“Aquel” (feminine: “aquella”) is far away.If you use all three, “aquel” is the farthest away. But if you’re not using all three, you choose “aquel” rather than “ese” if you want to show that something is far away.I want to ride in that (ese) car in front of the building, not in that (aquel) car that’s parked way over there.
8 What we’ve discussed so far is demonstrative ADJECTIVES What we’ve discussed so far is demonstrative ADJECTIVES. Adjectives describe nouns:Quiero esta manzana. – I want this apple.Now we’ll talk about demonstrative PRONOUNS. Pronouns take the place of nouns:No quiero esta manzana; quiero ésa. – I don’t want this apple; I want that one.If there’s a noun after it, it’s an adjective; if there’s not a noun after it, it’s a pronoun.The only difference between a demonstrative ADJECTIVE and a demonstrative PRONOUN in Spanish is the accent mark. If it’s a pronoun, there’ll be an accent mark over the first “e” in the word.
9 Spanish Demonstrative Pronouns: SINGULARPLURALMASCULINEFEMININEésteéstaéstoséstasthis; theseéseésaésosésasthat; thoseaquélaquéllaaquéllosaquéllasthat; those (over there)You’d NEVER say, “Quiero ese uno” for “I want that one.” You’d just say “Quiero ése.“Quiero ese libro. – Quiero ése.I want that book. – I want that one.Quiero esos libros. – Quiero ésos.I want those books. – I want those.Quiero aquella silla. – Quiero aquélla.I want that chair way over there. – I want that one way over there.Quiero aquellas sillas. – Quiero aquéllas.I want those chairs way over there. – I want those way over there.
10 NEUTER Demonstrative Pronouns: ESTO ESO AQUELLOThese forms refer to unidentified/unspecified nouns, situations, ideas and concepts.They do not change in gender or number and never carry an accent mark.Juan is my brother. – I didn’t know that.Juan es mi hermano. – Yo no sabia eso.In the above example, “eso” (“that”) doesn’t refer to an object; it refers to the fact that Juan is my brother. Since you don’t have a masculine or feminine object that the pronoun refers to, you use the neuter form.