4Shamash and Hammurabi Which is which? (Spodek, 59) Gods look like kings (and vice versa)Anthropocentric or regicentric?Separation of ruler from ruledSeparation of divine from humanGod-given laws cement human divisionsRich and poorMen and women
5Threefold approach to society Relation to nature – technologyRelation between people – social structureBelief system – form of consciousnessHarmony between these levels (normally)
6Historical “fall” (summary) On technological levelfrom dependence on independent natureto control over natureOn social levelfrom family-based, egalitarian societyto class-based, male dominant societyrulers are all powerfulOn consciousness levelAnimist oneness > Gods/priests are all powerful
7L Theory of History 110,000 years of kinship society 5,500 years of “civilization”Growing technologyIncreasing social inequalityPlus growing environmental destruction
8U theory of history110,000 years of kinship society with primitive technology5,500 years of inequality and oppressionBut also, creation of advanced technologyFuture: global kinship with advanced technology
9End of “civilization”? Social changes: Growth of democracy, equality Continued inequalities or new equality?Political rights for free men: 238 years old (American revolution)Civil rights for slaves: 149 years old (Civil War)Political rights for women: 94 years old (Women’s right to vote, 19th Amendment, 1920);end of segregation in the US south: 49 years old (Voting Rights Act of 1965)?
10New global kinship? Nature, technology and consciousness Continued domination over nature orNew ecology movement > consciousness of our oneness with nature, with the earth (film “Avatar”)Tech: Transportation and communications: one world family (global kinship)Or are we now slaves to the Internet?
11What caused the agricultural revolution? 1) Discovery of new technology?2) Population increase?3) Climate change?
12Explanations: why agriculture? (1) New technology, discovery?What did women gatherers know?How much work is needed? (Spodek, 43)Hunter gatherers: hoursAgriculturalists: hoursWhich work is harder?Who is healthier?
13(2) Population increase? H-G: 1 sq km: 9 peopleBands of 25 people each, loosely related > 500 in exogamous tribe (Spodek, 25)Agriculture: people per square kmBiology of reproductionLactating H-G mothers carrying infants up to four yearsSedentary agricultural mothers
14(3) Climate change Ending of last ice age 15,000 years ago (S, 43) plains > forests= dwindling of ecology of great herdsPlus: hunting continues as before> Ecological disaster
15Difference between Eurasia-Africa and the Americas In Americas:Early extinction of domestic animals: cattle, sheep, horses, pigsWhy no wheel in “New World”?What caused defeat of Aztecs, Incas, by Cortes, European invaders?Technological lag? Vulnerability to European diseases?In Eurasian/African land massLarger land massNew technologies developed before extinctions
16Paradox of Paleolithic ecological catastrophe Respect for nature of early animistic peoplesDescent into caves, rituals for renewing animal, plant species (magic)>Destruction of natureNew circumstances (climate change, global warming)Hunter/gatherers didn’t know what they were doingGilgamesh & Enkidu kill the HumbabaSee film Princess Mononoki
17Is technological “control” bad for nature? What saved animal species in Old World?More time for changes to take place in larger territoryAgricultural-herding (neolithic) revolutions: herders, agriculturalists produce their own means of survival= interpenetration, humanization of natureFrom magic to practical activityNew technology creates possibility of a new, more real sense of harmony with natureBut this did not happen. Why not?
18Civilization: break with nature Many things cause terror and wonder, yet nothingis more terrifying and wonderful than man.This thing goes across the graysea on the blasts of winterstorms, passing beneathwaters towering 'round him. The Earth,eldest of the gods,unwithering and untiring, this thing wears downas his plows go back and forth year after yearfurrowing her with the issue of horses. (Antigone, )
19So why the passage in Antigone? Sense of violation of NatureBreak from religion of natureSense of guilt and prideBut not the result of technology per seTechnology can save natureSo: need to consider the new social factor: hierarchical state, division of rich and poor, master and slaveControl of people over people > break from, control over natureWhat people do to animals and the natural world, they first do to each other
20Stages in agricultural revolution 1) Slash-and-burn (10,000 BCE)2) Early hoe agriculture on flood plainsTigris and EuphratesNile3) Hierarchical irrigation state 3000 BCE4) Iron plow agriculture on rain-watered lands (1000 BC )5) Next stage: 500 CE in Europe ??
21Slash and burn agriculture Cooperative social relationsHoe agriculture, women’s workUse of ash -- limitationsNomadic way of life continuesLife is difficultToday: Brazil – Amazon rain forests
22Flood plains of great rivers Simple tools (hoe)Natural, regular fertilization of soil by flooding riversAbundant harvest –> surplus of grainStored in granariesLife is easy (easier)Social level: Continuation of ancient cooperative kinship system
23Hymn to the NilePraise to thee, O Nile, that issueth from the earth, and cometh to nourish EgyptThat maketh barley and createth wheat, so that he may cause the temples to keep festivalsIf he be sluggish millions of men perish.Offer is made to every other god as is done for the Nile . . .
24Location of Garden of Eden “And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden And the fourth river is Euphrates.” Genesis 2:8From slash-and-burn poverty to abundance of paradise?
25What caused the “fall”? Rise of the hierarchical state 1) requirements of large populations?2) military necessity?3) requirements for organizing irrigation systems?4) exploitation of the majority by a minority?
261) Large Populations without States Difficulties of uniting different kinship societies. But not impossibleHunter-gatherer assemblies of local groupsTiv people in Africa united 1 millionIroquois Federation united separate tribesHence: large populations can be organized without a “state”
272) Military necessity?1) Traditional system of military: armed men of the kinship groupAmerican Indian military power: not separate army2) “State” = military power over the people (Gilgamesh)Hence: defense is possible without a “state”
283) Social problems of organizing irrigation Separate villages multiply along riverPopulation growth > move away from river> need for cooperation between kinship groupsIt is possible to have cooperation without a “state”Iroquois voluntary union of five nationsMaintains democratic constitution
29Problems with Kinship Groups First stage of history: kinship groupsBasic problems of this stageSeparation of groupsSporadic warsSecond stage: uniting of separate kinship groupsGrowing populationsMore frequent interaction, conflictsTwo methods of unificationcooperationforce: hierarchical stateHence: a choice between two methods
304) Exploitation of surplus 1) Production of surplusbased on higher productivity of simple laborDue to natural fertility of flooding river2) Surplus as targetFrom the outside > military protection neededFrom within the village > from the military protectors themselves3) Chief chosen by people > rules over them
31Rise of the hierarchical state 1) Traditional system of community controlMilitary leader is subordinate to communityIroquois: women elders in charge2) Conquest of the communityFrom within the community: the military leader seizes control, overthrows the old kinship order (Legal state of the West—positive law replaces kinship traditions)From outside the community: another kinship community takes over, conquers the first (neo-kinship state of the East)
32State as System of Inequality State as class-divided, hierarchyPower in hands of a fewStanding army under rule of eliteWomen subordinate to menSlavery