Presentation on theme: "Geography of the Fertile Crescent"— Presentation transcript:
1Geography of the Fertile Crescent Unit 2 Chapter 3Section 1
2The Geographic Setting of the Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia hadRich SoilLife giving riversA location that was a center of trade
3Why were people attracted to the Fertile Crescent?
4Why were people attracted to the Fertile Crescent? Rich Soil.
5The Location of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia comes from Greek wordsBetween the riversTigris and EuphratesShaped like a crescent moonGreat place for growing crops
6What is the term for the area between the rivers?
7What is the term for the area between the rivers? Mesopotamia
8Rivers Support the Growth of Civilization Early people settled where crops could grow.Grew well near rivers.Southwest Asia was well suited for farming
9LocationMesopotamia is between Asia Minor and the Persian Gulf as well.
10The Fertile CrescentFertile crescent is a large arc or crescent of fertile farmland.Extends to Persian Gulf and Mediterranean Sea.(In ancient times) Mesopotamia was in two parts
11The Rise of Civilization Hunter-gatherer first settled in Mesopotamia more than 12,000 years ago.Learned to plant crops and grow their own food.
12Rise of Civilization (Continued) Every year the Tigris and Euphrates rivers flooded.Brought silt.Silt- Mixture of rich soil and tiny rocksIdeal for farming
13Rivers of LifeTigris and Euphrates were the source of life for the people of MesopotamiaSupplied fishReeds for making boatsClay for building
14Farming SettlementsFirst farm settlements in Mesopotamia about 7000 B.C.Farmers grew wheat, barely, and other grains.Livestock were also good sources of food.Plentiful food = population growth.
15Farming Settlements Continued Population growth= villages form.Villages develop into world's first civilization
16Farming and Cities Mesopotamia received little rain Water levels in Mesopotamia depended on how much rain fell in eastern Asia MinorIf Water got too high floods destroyed crops, killed livestock, and destroyed homes.Water level too low crops driedFarmers needed to control river’s flow.
17Rivers of DeathTigris and Euphrates also sometimes brought flood watersDeposited good soilFlood waters did not come at the same time every yearPeople were swept awayAlso houses and animals
18Controlling WaterTo solve their problems Mesopotamians used irrigationIrrigation is a way of supplying water to an area of land.To irrigate land farmers dug storage basins to hold water supplies.
19Controlling Water People dug canals human-made waterways. Canals connected basins to a network of ditchesDitches brought water to fieldsTo protect fields from flooding farmers built up banksBuilt up banks held flood-water back when river levels were too high
20Irrigation increased the amount of food farmers produced Food SurplusesIrrigation increased the amount of food farmers producedA surplus or more than of an item was developed.Farmers Used irrigation to water grazing areas for cattle
21Food Surpluses (Continued) As a result to food surpluses Mesopotamians ate many foodsMesopotamians ate fish, meat, wheat, barely, and dates
22New occupations developed Dividing LaborFewer people farmed because of irrigationPeople started doing other jobsNew occupations developedThe type of arrangement where each worker specializes in a particular task is division of labor
23Mesopotamian SocietyWith more job occupations society accomplished moreLarge projects such as constructing buildings were startedProjects required skilled workersStructure and rules provided by government
24The Appearance of Cities Mesopotamian settlements grewDeveloped into cities around B.CSociety in Mesopotamia based on agricultureMost people farmed
25The Appearance of Cities (Continued) People tradedThere were political leaders with power basesThere was political, religious, cultural, and economic centers of civilization
27Where is Mesopotamia located? Question #1Where is Mesopotamia located?a.) between the Tigris and Euphrates riversb.) in Europec.) the Americasd.) far from the Mediterranean Sea
28a.) between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers Answer To Question #1a.) between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
29How did the Fertile Crescent get its name? Question #2How did the Fertile Crescent get its name?a.) it is a large arc of rich soilb.) it is the moons reflectionc.) it has the same land features as the moon when it is a crescent shaped.) it is in the shape of a circle
30a.) it is a large arc of rich soil Answer To Question #2a.) it is a large arc of rich soil
31Question #3What was the most important factor in making Mesopotamia's farmland fertile?a.) there were many lakesb.) there was a lot of rain in Mesopotamiac.) Mesopotamia's land was not fertiled.) the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
32d.) the Tigris and Euphrates rivers Answer To Question #3d.) the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
33What is a large arc of rich, or fertile, farmland? Question #4What is a large arc of rich, or fertile, farmland?a.) Fertile Crescentb.) Earthc.) Asia Minord.) Mesopotamia
35What is silt? Question #5 a.) Grass and rocks b.) tiny rocks and water c.) tiny rocks and rich soild.) sand
36c.) tiny rocks and rich soil Answer to Question #5c.) tiny rocks and rich soil
37Why did farmers need a system to control their water? Question #6Why did farmers need a system to control their water?a.) rains caused floodsb.) flooding from the Tigris and Euphrates riverc.) they wanted to have extra drinking waterd.) all of the above
38b.) flooding from the Tigris and Euphrates river Answer to Question #6b.) flooding from the Tigris and Euphrates river
39What increased the amount of food farmers were able to produce? Question #7What increased the amount of food farmers were able to produce?a.) canalsb.) irrigationc.) riversd.) lakes
53Between 4000 and 3000 B.C. what was society based on in Mesopotamia? Question #14Between 4000 and 3000 B.C. what was society based on in Mesopotamia?a.) agricultureb.) public leadersc.) arts and craftsd.) trade of ink