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Two-Generation Programs in the 21 st Century P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale Frances Willard Professor of Human Development and Social Policy Faculty Fellow,

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Presentation on theme: "Two-Generation Programs in the 21 st Century P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale Frances Willard Professor of Human Development and Social Policy Faculty Fellow,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Two-Generation Programs in the 21 st Century P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale Frances Willard Professor of Human Development and Social Policy Faculty Fellow, Institute for Policy Research Associate Provost for Faculty Northwestern University Helping Parents, Helping Children: Exploring the Promise of Two-Generation Programs Princeton, NJ May 22, 2014

2 Acknowledgements: Collaborators Jeanne Brooks-Gunn Jeanne Brooks-Gunn Columbia University Teresa Eckrich Sommer & Terri J. Sabol Teresa Eckrich Sommer & Terri J. Sabol Northwestern University Northwestern University Hirokazu Yoshikawa Hirokazu Yoshikawa New York University New York University Christopher King Christopher King University of Texas at Austin University of Texas at Austin Steven Dow & Monica Barczak Steven Dow & Monica Barczak Community Action Project of Tulsa Community Action Project of Tulsa

3 Acknowledgements: Funders Administration for Children and Families, Health & Human Services Ascend at the Aspen Institute Ascend at the Aspen Institute W.K. Kellogg Foundation W.K. Kellogg Foundation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation George Kaiser Family Foundation George Kaiser Family Foundation

4  Education Crisis in the U.S.  Two-Generation Programs 1.0 and 2.0  Theory and Empirical Evidence  What is Happening Nationally?  Future Directions Presentation Overview

5 Education Crisis in the U.S.

6 Educational Requirements in the 21 st Century  Education beyond high school is essential for success in the global economy  U.S. labor market increasingly requires higher levels of education and training  Disappearance of family-supporting, low-skilled jobs

7 Parents’ Education among Low- Income Children Under Age 3, 2010 Basic Facts About Low-income Children, 2010: Children Under Age 3. National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University 67% of low income children have parents with a high school degree or less

8 Socioeconomic Disparities in U.S. Postsecondary Degree Completion Graph from Isaacs et al., 2008; Brookings tabulation of PSID data from 2005 Family Income Quintile

9 Student Parents  27% of all undergraduates are student parents National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2002). Nontraditional Undergraduates. Delayed Enrollment and Part-time Attendance among Student Parents vs. Non-Parent Students

10 Children Under Age 6 Living in Low-Income Families, Basic Facts About Low-income Children, 2010: Children Under Age 6. National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University

11  Unifying form: Target parents and their children simultaneously  Variation in structure and content  Idea is not new Two-Generation Programs

12 Simultaneously connect and integrate high quality and intensive human capital investments Two-Generation Programs: LCL and JBG Definition Early Childhood Education Workforce Development

13 Two-Generation Programs 2.0 Child Early childhood education centers Pre-K to 3 rd grade programs Parent AA and BA degrees Certification Job training Child & Parent Early childhood education centers Pre-K to 3 rd grade programs AA and BA degrees Certification Job training 2.0 Programs 1.0 Programs Chase-Lansdale, P.L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2014). Two-Generation Programs in the Twenty-First Century. Future of Children.

14 Research Hypothesis Two generation programs will have a greater impact on children than early childhood education alone

15  Empirical evidence lags behind practice and policy  Theoretical evidence is compelling Two-Generation Programs: Research and Practice in 2014

16 Why Would Two-Generation Programs Be Effective?  Continuity and Change Theory  Ecological Theory  Risk and Resilience Theory

17 Change Model Improved cognitive and social development Higher attendance Readiness for kindergarten Motivation to pursue education and careers Defined education and career goals Higher rates of adult basic education Higher rates of education and career training enrollment Child Parent Two Generation Programs Early Childhood Centers High-Quality Classrooms Family Support Services PSE/Workforce Development Community Colleges Job Training Programs Employers Passage of time from parents’ initial enrollment: 0- 2 years

18 Change Model Child Parent Two Generation Programs Early Childhood Centers High-Quality Classrooms Family Support Services PSE/Workforce Development Community Colleges Job Training Programs Employers Higher rates of persistence in education and job training Improved job training skills and career development Higher rates of employment Higher wage growth Higher motivation and engagement in school Academic success in elementary school Social competence Passage of time from parents’ initial enrollment: 2-5 years

19 Change Model Child Parent Two Generation Programs Early Childhood Centers High-Quality Classrooms Family Support Services PSE/Workforce Development Community Colleges Job Training Programs Employers Increased high school graduation rates Increased training and postsecondary education attainment High expectations and positive future orientation Stable career Family supporting wage Greater life stability Better functioning family system Passage of time from parents’ initial enrollment: 5+ years

20 Change Model Child Parent Two Generation Programs Early Childhood Centers High-Quality Classrooms Family Support Services PSE/Workforce Development Community Colleges Job Training Programs Employers Understanding of relationship between own education and that of child Higher expectations for children and growing investment in their learning Improved parenting practices Increased physical and emotional well being Passage of time from parents’ initial enrollment: years

21 When Mothers Increase Their Education, Children’s Learning Improves Magnuson,K. (2007). Dashed Lines reflect the time period during which mother's education increased

22  Early Childhood Education Short and long-term outcomes Evidence on quality and scale-up What’s New? Significant Advances in Programs and Research

23 Jan. 30, 2014 Gail Collins Feb 13, 2013 May 29, 2013 Oct 16, 2013 National Spotlight on Early Childhood Education Sep 19, 2013 April 17, 2014 April 18, 2014 Jan. 30, 2014 Nicholas Kristof

24 What’s New? Significant Advances in Programs and Research  Postsecondary Education Expanded Availability Contextualized GED Training Role of Coaches, Peers Supports  Job Training Workforce Intermediaries

25 National Spotlight on Post- Secondary Education

26  Adding adult programs to child programs  Adding child programs to adult programs  Adult and child programs merged within existing organizations or agencies  Adult and child programs in residential programs On the Ground Programs 2.0

27 Adding adult programs to child programs

28 Adding child programs to adult programs

29 Adult and child programs merged within existing organizations

30 Adult and child programs in residential programs

31 Two-Generation Programs 2.0: Considerations  Programs for fathers and mothers  Equivalent program quality and intensity for each generation  Increase integration of parent and child programming  Positive outcomes may take many years

32 Two-Generation Programs 2.0: Conclusions  Very early stages  Hold promise for advancing the human capital of low-income parents and children  Time is ripe for innovation, experimentation, and evaluation

33 Gormley et al., 2005; Lipsey et al.., 2013; Magnuson et al., 2007; Schweinhart et al., 2005; Ramey et al., 1979; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005; Wong et al., 2008 Early Childhood Education and Child Outcomes Model Programs from 1960s and 1970s Prekindergarten programs Head Start

34 Model Programs from 1960s and 1970s Short and long term effects of Perry Preschool Schwinhart, 2003


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