Presentation on theme: "Dual-Generation Education and Training Interventions for Low-Income Families Escape From Poverty: P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale Cells to Society (C2S): The."— Presentation transcript:
Dual-Generation Education and Training Interventions for Low-Income Families Escape From Poverty: P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale Cells to Society (C2S): The Center on Social Disparities and Health Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University Presentation at the Ascend Roundtable March 29, 2011
Acknowledgements: Collaborators Teresa Eckrich Sommer Northwestern University Jeanne Brooks-Gunn and Margo Gardner Columbia University Christopher King and Robert Glover University of Texas at Austin Diane Rauner and Karen Freel Ounce of Prevention Fund, Chicago Steven Dow and Monica Barczak Community Action Project of Tulsa
Acknowledgements: Funders Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Administration for Children, Youth, and Families, HHS
Presentation Overview Education Crisis in America Parents’ Roles in Children’s Success Antipoverty Policy in the U.S. Innovation: Ounce Collaboration with Chase-Lansdale and Brooks-Gunn
Disadvantage in the United States: CHILDREN
Children Under Age 6, By Family Income, 2009 Middle/UpperIncome NearPoor Poor Basic Facts About Low-income Children, 2009: Children Under Age 18. National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University 46% of children under 6 are low income
Children Under Age 6 Living in Low-Income Families, 1997-2009 Basic Facts About Low-income Children, 2009: Children Under Age 18. National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University
Education Crisis in America
Percent of 4th Graders Scoring Below Proficient by Family Income Percent of 4th Graders Scoring Below Proficient by Family Income Source: Council on Foundations, The Campaign for Grade Level Reading
Children Under 6 in Low-Income Families, by Parent Education, 2009 Some college or more Less than high school High school Basic Facts About Low-income Children, 2009: Children Under Age 18. National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University 59% of parents with high school education or less
Defining Postsecondary Education A postsecondary degree (AA or BA) A certificate with value in the marketplace
Access versus Completion Postsecondary enrollments, 2- and 4- year degrees Increased 300% from 1965 to 2005 Increased 300% from 1965 to 2005 From 5.9 million to 17.5 million From 5.9 million to 17.5 million Completion of PSE degree Proportion has remained stagnant Proportion has remained stagnant <50% attain a degree by age 26 <50% attain a degree by age 26
Entry Rates in 4-year Universities and Colleges Percentage Data from Education at Glance 2008: OECD Indicators
Graduation Rates from 4-year Universities and Colleges Percentage Data from Education at Glance 2008: OECD Indicators
Socioeconomic Disparities in U.S. Postsecondary Degree Completion Graph from Isaacs et al., 2008; Brookings tabulation of PSID data from 2005 Family Income Quintile
Parents’ Roles in Their Children’s Success
A Conceptual Model of Inputs for Healthy Child Development Family & Kin Postsecondary Education Home Environment Non-family settings Child Outcomes Child Characteristics Parental Characteristics Community Context Income Employment
A Conceptual Model of Inputs for Healthy Child Development Family & Kin Fathers, husbands, and partners Number of children Kin availability and social networks Income from family and networks Parental Characteristics Race/ethnicity Age Gender Abilities K-12 education Mental health Community Context Neighborhood Labor Market Educational institutions Public policies and social services Income Employment Postsecondary Education Home Environment Partner/marital relationship Parenting (warmth & connection; language & literacy; cultural traditions) Shared learning and role modeling Non-family settings Preschool (0-5) Evening/weekend care K-12 After school programs Child Characteristics Race/ethnicity Age Gender Temperament Genetic Predispositions Child Outcomes School success Social competence
U.S. Antipoverty Policies to Promote Socioeconomic Status Welfare Reform Earned Income Tax Credit Education
AFDC/TANF Caseload: 1960-2007 Source: U.S Department of Health and Human Services http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ofa/caseload/caseloadindex.htm
Percentage of Employed Married, Single and Never-married Mothers : 1985-2005 Percentage of mothers working Source: Gary Burtless, The Brookings Institution, 2005
Efforts to Improve Young Mothers’ Education An underdeveloped field Overriding influence of welfare reform Very modest results to date GED GED College attendance, not completion College attendance, not completion Little focus on fathers
Disadvantage and Child Development 16 mos.24 mos.36 mos. Cumulative Vocabulary (Words) College Educated Parents Working Class Parents Welfare Parents Child’s Age 200 600 1200 Hart & Risley, 1995
When Mothers Increase Their Education, Children’s Learning Improves Magnuson,K. (2007). Dashed Lines reflect the time period during which mother's education increased
Short-term outcomes Academic preparedness; career exposure Social emotional readiness for kindergarten Understanding of relationship between own education and that of child Motivation to pursue education and careers Defined education and career goals Higher rates of PSE and career training enrollment and persistence Theory of Change Child Mother (and Father) High-quality classroom environments ADD: Career Coach Partnerships with community colleges, job training Family support services Early Education
Child Mother (and Father) Early Education Long-term outcomes Mid-term outcomes Increased high school graduation rates Increased PSE attainment Higher rates of adult basic education PSE credit accumulation PSE persistence PSE completion Success in elementary school Increased emotional well-being Greater life stability Career advancement Increased salaries Theory of Change High-quality classroom environments ADD: Career Coach Partnerships with community colleges, job training Family support services
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Postsecondary Success Initiative $69 million in grants to improve college enrollment and completion rates in U.S. By 2050, double the percentage of low- income students who attain a postsecondary degree Goals Improve postsecondary education system Improve postsecondary education system Support young adult success Support young adult success Influence policy and practice Influence policy and practice
Our Project Exploratory Study Intervention Framework
Research Questions 1. How do young, low-income mothers vary in their postsecondary educational readiness? 2. What does participation in high quality early childhood education programs mean for mothers’ educational trajectories?
Research Questions 3. In what ways do mothers, in the context of high quality early education, connect their educational goals for their children with their own educational goals?
STUDY SITES 3 high quality, urban early childhood centers (6 months-5 years; full-day, full-year) Denver, Chicago, and Miami
DATA COLLECTION 51 Mothers, 12 interviewed twice 60-90 minute interviews, taped and transcribed 17 Focus Groups Leadership, family support, teachers Leadership, family support, teachers
SAMPLE 15-19 mothers at each site, randomly selected Study sample (N=51) and program population of 3 centers (N=302) similar
Mothers’ Characteristics Age Race/ethnicity
Mothers’ Background Immigrant status 20% born outside of the United States Marital status 14% married 61% single 24% cohabiting Raising two children, on average
Education and Employment Education 18% < HS 55% HS diploma 26% PSE degree Employment 29% Full-time 31% Part-time 41% Not employed
Data Coding and Analytic Strategies NVivo Data File Transcribed mother interviews and focus groups Transcribed mother interviews and focus groups Field notes and demographic surveys Field notes and demographic surveys Two analytic approaches Mother profiles Mother profiles Grounded theory Grounded theory
Dimensions of Postsecondary Readiness Postsecondary educational experiences Educational motivation and desire Support system Employment and financial supports Life circumstances and risks (3=high, 1=low)
Postsecondary education experiences 1=none 2=discontinuous PSE 3=uninterrupted enrollment Educational motivation and desire 1=little or none 2=vague desire 3=specific plans Coding Scheme
Support System 1=none or just one person 2=limited 2=limited or inconsistent 3=regular support Employment and financial supports 1=mostly public assistance 2=part-time work and/or food stamps 3=adult with steady, full-time work Coding Scheme
Life risks: family health, housing instability, legal status, trauma or loss, language barrier 1=two or more 2=only one 3=none Reverse-coded
Variability in Potential Postsecondary Success
High (N=9) Medium (N=27) Low (N=15)
High PSE Readiness Level: I’m going for it; nothing will stop me HS degree or GED, mostly on-time with positive learning experiences 2/3 currently enrolled in PSE program Highly motivated with specific goals Strong support network
High Level of PSE Readiness Do they need an intervention? Doing well currently, but one crisis away Possible narrow or short-term vision
Low PSE Readiness Level: I want my child to succeed where I have not HS drop out or GED Few positive high school learning experiences None enrolled in PSE Limited social supports
Low Level of PSE Readiness Lack of success: poor ability, poor opportunities, or both? Significant challenges: how can we better support them? Beyond scope of educational intervention?
Medium PSE Level 3 possible subgroups Highly motivated but lack emotional or financial support Highly motivated but lack emotional or financial support Regular supports and some financial stability, not highly motivated Regular supports and some financial stability, not highly motivated Doubt PSE is right choice currently for reasons that may make sense Doubt PSE is right choice currently for reasons that may make sense
Mothers View College As Essential
“You can’t make it today without an education. You need a degree – that’s how I feel.” “I think it should be…a requirement because it’s like right now, in this day, in this world, you really, really, need an education beyond high school.”
High Aspirations All (51) mother’s committed to their children’s educational achievement, most often college (39), or more Some mothers committed to their own education; others had given up and focused only on children
Implications of High Aspirations? Not surprising given college for all ethos Ambition paradox: mismatch between goals and successful pursuits Unrealistic expectations may have negative consequences
PSE and Single Student- Parents Rates of college enrollment doubled (7% to 13%) for unmarried parents in last 20 years Only 4.6% complete BA within 6 years Community colleges: only 23 % of those who enroll complete a degree in 4 years
Participation in High Quality Early Education Can Make a Difference in Parents’ Views of What is Possible
Child Care As Context for Adult Educational Intervention Child development My child is learning and growing here. Psychosocial benefit I don’t have to worry. I can focus on school or work. Relational support I get support at the center. Information support I find helpful information and resources here.
My child is learning and growing here (N=50) When I came here it was like, it really looks like a school! Like I like it so much because… it’s not just a place, somewhere for the kids to just come and play. It is not like a daycare where they just go and play; all day they are learning and interacting with other kids and that’s what I want them to do. I don’t want them to be sheltered from the real world, I want them to be able to interact with kids and get an early start, you know.
I don’t have to worry; I can focus on school or work (N=38) …like right now, per se, I don’t worry. You know when you’re trying to focus on school, you need to try to weed out all the problems, everything that’s going to take away from your education. Like childcare, if you don’t have no one to watch your children, you can’t go to school…If you think your child is somewhere that is not safe, you can’t read and understand what you’re reading…
I get support at the center (N=33) Well like Ms. D, I love Ms. D because she's like your mother that stays on you… And if you -- if something's wrong she wants you to be able to talk to her - because then they can help you and keep you moving… they're just like another set of people that you can have in your corner. They always, you know, they just want to know what's going on with you, not just with your son, but with you as well... So they really care about you just as well as they care about your child.
Parenthood, When Combined With Participation In High Quality Child Care, Can Be a Powerful Educational Motivator
Parenthood May Provide Powerful Educational Motivator I want to give my child more than I had (N=26) I want to be a good educational role model for my child (N=35) I know that my child’s school success is linked to my own educational success (N=2)
I want to give my child more than I had. I do want them to go above and beyond... Definitely when you are a parent, you always want your, your children to do more than what you did.
I want to be a good educational role model for my child. Interviewer: What are your dreams and goals for your boys? Respondent: Well, I want them to of course finish high school and go to college. I want to be able to show them I went to college, and I was a person that I would have never seen myself in college. I know that if I can do it, they can do it.
I know that my child’s school success is linked to my own educational success. I put myself as an example because I think a lot about the educational future of my daughter and mine too. The first thing that comes to mind is if I study, she is going to live better. And, as she sees my example, she is going to prepare herself mentally, as she grows, to focus in her studies., because that is what she’s going to see…. I focus on her education because without an education, you are nothing. What are you going to do? That is the best legacy you can give to your children.
Staff: Mothers’ Education and Children’s Learning Mothers enrolled in postsecondary education may positively influence their children’s learning. We have a mom who’s a mechanic, and she just graduated from school. His vocabulary is through the roof; it’s so rich. She talks about working on cars, different kinds of cars, colors of cars, what in a car… I mean he knows more about cars than we do….
Staff: Children’s Learning and Mothers’ Education Parents who observe their children’s success in early care may be more motivated to persist educationally I think the parents who are really excited about their child’s education were the ones that then said ‘Okay, I’m gonna do something about my education.’ Part of the success for families here is that their investment here leads them to figure out ways to make themselves successful.
An Innovative Dual-Generation Education Intervention
Parents and Children: Dual-Generational Approach
Early Childhood Education Center PSE Coach Student Peer Cohorts Financial Incentives & Supports Workforce Development/ Employers Basic Education & ESL Local Colleges Elementary Schools Education 2
CareerAdvance Model Community Action Project (CAP), Tulsa, OK, Steven Dow and Monica Barczak Christopher King & Bob Glover, LBJ School, Ray Marshall Center, UT-Austin Hiro Yoshikawa, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Directions for the Future How does Ascend define Two Generation Programs? Role of fathers Compelling evidence for shaping future policy and practice
Parents and Children “You are an example to your kids and if you are the type of parent where you are trying to make your life better for you and your children…..So if you all had that type of support system here, it'll push you to do better, and it will push you to be better parents because you're doing this for your kids… It's an intimidating factor because we didn't go to school… But if you had somebody that you could talk to and they're like, okay, you're going to school for this…It'll kind of motivate you. And even if your kids see you talking to somebody, it'll kind of motivate them to know that, okay, my mamma did this. I can do it too…”
CareerAdvance Model Community Action Project (CAP), Tulsa, OK, Steven Dow and Monica Barczak Christopher King & Bob Glover, LBJ School, Ray Marshall Center Hiro Yoshikawa, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Case Example: Focus on Children and Job Having children changed her focus “Made me wake up and take things more seriously” Full-time at well-paying, satisfying job in customer service at supermarket chain When asked about school, “I just want to work,” too much time away from children
Life Balance: Responsibilities as Parents “If I would go to school, I wouldn’t be able to go every day because I work every day. I would have to set a schedule.… I just don’t want to be so stuck with that because I really won’t have any time with my kids… And for my son to not see me all the time, I feel bad, you know? Because when my son sees me he’s like [gasp,] like he saw Jesus or something. He starts saying mama papa dada…he just starts blabbing because he’s so excited to see me. So that’s why I don’t want to get stuck at school or work…I don’t want to feel like I’m rejecting them, you know?”
Family, Work, AND School? If and when is a PSE intervention appropriate? Would mothers see their choices differently if they had more knowledge or guidance about options in the short and long run?
Part-time or Full-time? If schooling is part-time, can mothers with young children support themselves and stay committed and motivated over a longer time frame? Should an intervention focus only on parents who can attend school full-time?