8Eisenhower and the Cold War Eisenhower used experienced diplomat John Foster Dulles to spearhead his foreign policyDulles believed Truman’s containment policy was too passiveHe advocated a policy of challenging the USSR and ChinaHe declared if the US pushed communist powers to the brink of war they would back down because of nuclear superiority-the idea was known as “brinkmanship”
9Massive RetaliationDulles advocated placing greater reliance on nuclear and air powerThe idea was to get “more bang for your buck”-spend less money on conventional forces and more on destructive forcesTo some the policy looked like “mutually assured destruction” rather than a deterrent
10Unrest in the Third World The collapse of colonial empires after WWII may have been the single most important development of the postwar eraThese new third world countries often lacked stable political and economic institutions and their need for foreign aid made them pawns the the US or USSR
11Covert OperationsPart of Eisenhower’s new look foreign policy involved covert operations in other countriesUsing operatives was less expensive and objectionable than using troops
12Candy Question!In the early 1950’s, what two countries did the CIA heavily use covert operations in?
14Two Examples of Covert Operations In Iran in 1953 the CIA played a major role in helping to overthrow a government that tried to nationalize the holding of foreign oil companies-in return, the west was provided favorable oil prices and Iran made enormous purchases of American armsIn Guatemala in 1954 the CIA overthrew a leftists gov’t that threatened American business interestsUS opposition to communism sometimes drove the gov’t to support ruthless dictators particularly in South America
15Fall of Indochina After WWII the French tried to re-acquire Indochina Cambodians and Vietnamese resisted and supported nationalist and communist leader Ho Chi MinhBy 1950 the war had become a staging ground for the struggle between capitalism and communismThe French suffered a crushing defeat at Dien Bien PhuIndochina was divided into the countries of Cambodia Laos, and Vietnam at the Geneva Conference in 1954
16Division of VietnamBy the terms of the Geneva Conference (1954), Vietnam was to be temporarily divided at the 17th parallel until general elections could be heldThe North was led by Ho Chi Minh and the South by Ngo Dinh Diem-they were backed by anticommunist, catholic, and urban VietnameseThe election was never held mainly because the South feared the communists would win the election
17Division of VietnamFrom , the US gave over $1 billion in economic and military aid to South VietnamIn justifying this president Eisenhower made the analogy to a row of dominoes-if one fell, it would create a chain reaction and most or all of Asia and Australia would fall
18Candy Question!What defensive organization was formed to stop the spread of Communism in Asia?
20What does SEATO stand for? Candy Question!What does SEATO stand for?
21South East Treaty Organization AnswerSouth East Treaty Organization
22SEATOTo prevent the “fall” to communism, of South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, Dulles put together a regional defense pact called the Southeast Asia Treaty organizationThe pact agreed to defend one another in case of an attack within the regionIt was signed by the US, Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, Philippines, Thailand, and Pakistan
24Candy Question!In the Middle East, the United States had to engage in a “balancing act”. What two things did they have to balance?
25AnswerThe U.S. had to retain friendly relationships with Arab oil producing countries while assisting Israel.
26Middle EastIn the Middle East the US had the difficult balancing act of maintaining friendly ties with oil-rich Arab states with supporting the new country of Israel (1948)
27Suez Crisis (1956)In order to gain funds for the Aswan High Dam project, Egyptian nationalist General Gamal Nasser seized and nationalized the British-French owned Suez canalBritain, France, and Israel carried out a surprise attack on Egypt and retook the canalEisenhower was furious partly because he was not informed of the attackHe sponsored a UN resolution condemning the attackThe forces withdrew under mounting world pressure
29Eisenhower DoctrineThe US quickly replaced Britain and France as the leading western influence in the Middle EastIt faced a growing Soviet influence in Egypt and Syria (the USSR had provided Egypt with funds for building the Aswan High dam)The US pledged economic and military aid to any Middle Eastern country threatened by communismThe doctrine was first applied in Lebanon in ’58 by sending 14,000 marines to prevent a civil war between Christians and Muslims
30US-Soviet RelationsIn terms of security, nothing was more important than diplomatic relations with the USSRRelations constantly fluctuated between periods of calm and extreme tension
31Spirit of Geneva (1955)After Stalin’s Death (1953) Ike called for a slowdown in the arms raceThe USSR withdrew troops from AustriaBoth Ike and Soviet Premier Bulganin agreed to meet in GenevaAlthough no agreements were reached, the event was the first “thaw” in the Cold War and was dubbed “Spirit of Geneva” by the press
32Hungarian RevoltIn October, 1956 a Hungarian uprising succeeded in overthrowing the Soviet backed gov’tThe new leaders encouraged getting out of the Warsaw PactThe USSR sent tanks and troops and destroyed the uprisingThe US did nothing
33Effects of the Hungarian revolt By allowing Soviet tanks to roll into Hungary, the US gave de facto recognition of the Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern EuropeIn effect, this recognition ended Dulles’ talk of liberating the regionThe event also ended the first “thaw” in the Cold War
34SputnikThe USSR launched not one but two satellites into space, greatly alarming the US and calling their technological superiority into questionMany blamed the education system and in 1958 Congress passed the NDEA (National Defense and Education Act) to increase funding for science and foreign language educationIn 1958 Congress also created NASA (National Air and Space Administration) to compete with the SovietsFears of nuclear war were intensified by Sputnik because nuclear missiles delivered from satellites could hit their target in minutes
35Second Berlin Crisis (1958) Bolstered by Sputnik, Soviet Premier Kruschev gave the West six months to pull out of West BerlinEisenhower refused but invited Kruschev to discuss the issue at Camp David and the crisis was put off
36U-2 Incident US spy plane shot down USSR mad Ike apologized/showed weakness1960 Paris Summit called off
37CUBAProbably the most alarming development of the Cold War was the loss of Cuba to CommunismFidel Castro took control and was supported by the Soviet USSREisenhower responded by cutting all trade with CubaIke also authorized the CIA to create a plan to train Cuban exiles to retake the island
38Eisenhower’s LegacyIn his farewell address, Ike spoke out against the negative impact of the Cold War on US society“The nation should guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence…by the “military industrial complex.”To some, the US was going down the road of ancient republics such as Rome and turning into a military or imperial state
41Cold War Timeline 1945 Yalta Conference German surrender Atomic bombs used to defeat JapanCreation of the United Nations1946 "Iron Curtain" speech by Churchill1947 Truman Doctrine for containment of communismMarshall Plan: European Recovery Program1948 Communist rule imposed on CzechoslovakiaBerlin blockade and airliftPublication of Orwell's 19841949 Establishment of NATOEast Germany: German Democratic RepublicWest Germany: German Federal RepublicIndependence of Israel; Communist revolution in ChinaSoviet Union tests atomic bombKorean War1953 Death of Stalin; Street protests in East Germany1955 Warsaw Pact founded1956 Khrushchev "secret speech"; anti-communist uprising in Hungary1961 Construction of the Berlin Wall1962 Cuban Missile Crisis1963 Kennedy speech at the Berlin Wall