2 Does the child reason and remember the same way that you do Does the child reason and remember the same way that you do? How do you know?If the answer to the first question is “no,” make a list of some of the specific differences between the way that you think and the way that the child thinks
3 Three main approaches to cognitive development Cognition – refers to the inner processes and products of the mind that lead to “knowing”Three main approaches to cognitive developmentPiaget’s cognitive developmental theoryVygotsky’s sociocultural theoryInformation processing
4 Imagine:You are playing with a six-month-old infant and suddenly leave the room to answer the telephone.You take a four-year-old child’s small cup of juice and empty it into a larger cup.While trying to settle a fight over the TV between a seven-year-old and a 12-year-old, you flip a coin. The seven-year-old loses.
5 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Genetic epistemologyWhat is intelligence?helps an organism adaptCognitive equilibrium
6 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Gaining Knowledge: Schemes and ProcessesSchemes: mental patterns (thought/action)Constructivist approach
7 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory AdaptationAssimilationAccommodationEquilibrationOrganization
8 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Stage theoryInvariant and UniversalOrder is genetically determined, but many factors affect the speedMay not reach highest levelQualitatively different representational and reasoning abilities
9 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory The Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 years)Coordinate sensory inputs and motor skillsTransition from being reflexive to reflective
11 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Sensorimotor StageDevelopment of Object PermanenceObjects continue to exist when they are no longer visible/detectableAppears by 8-12 months of ageA-not-B error: search in the last place found, not where it was last seenComplete by months
12 You are playing with a six-month-old infant and suddenly leave the room to answer the telephone.
14 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Two important features of mature thoughtsymbolic/mental representationIntentionalityVisual displacementsInvisible displacementsDefer imitationMake believe play
15 Identifying Substages Juan accidentally pushes his stuffed toy and it makes a noise as it is squeezed. Juan laughs and does it again, and again, and again.Linnea is sitting in her highchair. She holds her right arm high above her head and drops her spoon on the floor. Her mother giggles, picks it up, and hands it to her. Linnea then holds her right arm straight out from her body and drops her spoon. After her mother retrieves it, she holds her arm straight out in front of her and drops her spoon.
16 Noelle wants to go outside to play Noelle wants to go outside to play. She is carrying her cup of water in one hand and her doll (it goes everywhere with her) in the other. She realizes that she cannot push the door open because both of her hands are full. Consequently, she places her doll under her arm and uses her free hand to open the door.Lionel is watching his new little sister, Sybil, sleep. He notices that her burp cloth has fallen off the changing table and is near her face. He reaches down to remove the burp cloth and in doing so, the burp cloth gently brushes Sybil’s face. Sybil turns her head towards the burp cloth and opens her mouth.
17 Kendall and her mother play a game where they touch each other’s noses and giggle. Kendall’s mother touches her nose and then Kendall touches her mother’s nose. One time, Kendall’s mother places a handkerchief between her face and Kendall’s face. Kendall swipes the handkerchief away with one hand and touches her mother’s face with the other.Isaac and his mother are playing a game of hide-and-seek. Isaac’s mother places his toy car under a pillow and Isaac giggles as he retrieves it. One time Isaac’s mother pretends to place the toy car under the pillow but instead places it under the blanket. Isaac picks up the pillow and becomes upset when he realizes that the car isn’t there.
18 Phil is just lying on his back when he manages to grasp his foot Phil is just lying on his back when he manages to grasp his foot. He smiles and lets go. His mother watches as he wiggles around until he manages to grasp his foot again.
19 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Challenges to Piaget’s Sensorimotor StageNeo-nativism –Innate knowledgeRequire less time/experienceObject permanence, memoryBaillargeonObject permanence
22 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Theory theoriesCombination of neo-nativist and Piagetian perspectiveInfants are prepared at birth to make sense of some informationBeyond this, Piaget’s constructivist approach is generally accurate
23 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Preoperational Stage (2-7 years)Characterized more by what children can’t doOperationNow mental what was once physical
24 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Preoperational Stage (con’t)Symbolic/ representational activityMake-believe playThinking is rigid
29 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Preoperational Stage (con’t)You take a four-year-old child’s small cup of juice and empty it into a larger cup.What do you think will happen? Why?Hierarchical classificationClass inclusion problem
30 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Preoperational Stage (con’t)Challenges to the Preoperational StageEgocentrismFlavellExistenceNeedInferenceTwo levels of perspective takingLevel 1Level 2
31 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Preoperational Stage (con’t)ChallengesConservationAnimismCategorization
32 A Brief Vacation from Piaget… Theory of Mindchildren begin to understand that the same world can be experienced in different ways by different people
33 A Brief Vacation from Piaget… Theory of Mind (con’t)the ability to infer mental states in others is proof that children have a theory of mind – which is a coherent understanding of their own and other’s mental livesResearch with 2 y/o
34 A Brief Vacation from Piaget… Theory of mind (con’t)Henry Wellman (1990)False belief tasks
35 A Brief Vacation from Piaget… Theory of Mind (con’t)Harris (1989) suggests that the acquisition of a theory of mind involves three major developments:self-awarenessthe capacity for pretensethe ability to distinguish reality from pretense
36 …Back to Piaget… Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years) logical, rule-bound, and integratedlimited to tangible thingsPiaget regarded conservation as the single most important achievement of the concrete operational stage because it provides clear evidence of operationsDecentrationReversibility
37 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Concrete Operational Stage (con’t)Horizontal decalageMore adept at ClassificationMental seriationChallenges – experience
38 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Formal Operational Stage (11+)no longer earthbound and concreteabstract and speculativeWhile trying to settle a fight over the TV between a seven-year-old and a 12-year-old, you flip a coin. The seven-year-old loses.can now evaluate short and long range consequencesnecessary for achieving identity, formulating ideological goals, and for selecting an occupation
41 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Formal Operational Stage (con’t)Limitations to Formal Operational ThoughtAdolescent EgocentrismImaginary audiencePersonal fable
42 Challenges to Piaget’s Theory Underestimated children’s capabilitiesFailed to distinguish competence from performanceDoes cognitive development occur in stages?Does Piaget “explain” cognitive development?Little attention to social and cultural influences
43 Strengths of Piaget’s Theory Vivid and detailed description of cognitive developmentHighlight interactive nature of cognition and environmentChildren are active constructors of knowledge
44 Vygotskythe child and the environment work together to shape cognition in culturally adaptive waysdevelopment proceeds through social interaction and entails gradual internalization of cultural knowledge and processes for manipulating thought
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