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Chapter 5 A Qualitative Developmental Approach to Assessment

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1 Chapter 5 A Qualitative Developmental Approach to Assessment

2 Constructivism – people are active learners
Chapter 7: Cognition Cognition: the activity of knowing and the processes through which knowledge is acquired and problems are solved Constructivism – people are active learners

3 Jean Piaget ( ) Cognition unfolds in a sequence of four stages.

4 Genetic Epistemology How we come to know reality Clinical Method Question and answer technique Used to discover how children think about problems

5 Clinical Method (example of a 6 year old)
Piaget: Why is it dark at night? Van: Because we sleep better, and so that it shall be dark in the rooms. Piaget: Where does the darkness come from? Van: Because the sky becomes grey. Piaget: What makes the sky become grey? Van: The clouds become dark. Piaget: How is that? Van: G-d makes the clouds become dark.

6 Piaget Intelligence: How well we adapt Scheme (s) or schema (schemata)/cognitive structures Organization - Children systematically combine existing schemes into new and more complex ones.

7 Adaptation Adjusting to the environment Using assimilation and accommodation Assimilation Using existing schemes to interpret new experiences E.g., Birds are things that fly Accommodation Modifying schemes to fit new experience E.g., Butterflies are different than Birds even though they both fly Equilibrium A resolution of conflict to create a balance

8 Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory
Piaget’s Four Stages Cognition unfolds in a sequence of four stages. Each is age-related and distinctive. Each stage is discontinuous from and more advanced than another.

9 Piaget Sensorimotor Stage Newborn uses reflexes to understand world Eventually - mental representation Object Permanence A, not B, error – 8 to 12 month-olds search for an object in the place where they last found it (A) rather than in its new hiding place (B).

10 Sensorimotor stage

11 Symbolic Function Substage (2-4 Years)
Symbolic thought: Mental representation of an object that is not present Egocentrism: The inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and someone else’s perspective. Animism: The belief that inanimate objects have “lifelike” qualities and are capable of action.

12 Can this boy report what the clown doll sees?

13 They Centrate: Focusing on one characteristic to the exclusion of others.
No Conservation: Some characteristic of an object stays the same even though the object might change in appearance.

14 Piaget’s Conservation Task

15 Intuitive rather than logical
Lack classification ability Lack transformational thought Lack conservation due to static thinking, irreversible thought and centration Asks a lot of questions signals the emergence of the interest in reasoning reflects intellectual curiosity

16 Class Inclusion

17 How would you group these?

18 Classification v v This grouping is by shape and size and color. It is
multiple classification. The child has to think of three dimensions at once. In what stage could the child do this?

19 Preoperational stage

20 Conservation of Length
Is one of these lines longer or are they they same? What would the pre-operational child say?

21 Conservation of Length
The preoperational child would say the one on the top is longer. Pre-operational children base their concepts on perception, not logic.

22 Conservation of Length
Are all of these lines the same length? Is one longer? What would the pre-operational child say?

23 Conservation of Length
Preoperational children are tricked by perception. The think the one “out front” is longer.

24 Conservation of Area Which side has more green?

25 Both have the same area of green
Both have the same area of green. Preoperational children rely on perception and think the one on the right has more.

26 Conservation of Number
Do these two rows have the same number of balls? Do these two rows have the same number of balls? Which has more?

27 Conservation of Number
Pre-operational children think the row on the bottom has more. Later they develop one-to-one correspondence. They understand there is one for this one, one for that one, and one for that one, etc.

28 Concrete Operations Age 7-11 Can conserve Decentration Reversible thinking Logical thinking (limited to reality) Seriation and classification Transitive thinking: “ If J is taller than M, and M is taller than S, who is taller – J or S?”

29 Figure 7.4 Some common tests of the child’s ability to conserve.

30 Short Answer When a child can focus on both width and length of two triangles in order to compare their areas, Piaget would say that the child is capable of _________________.

31 Formal Operations Adolescence/puberty Logical thinking about ideas Hypothetical and abstract thinking Hypothetical-deductive reasoning – from general ideas to their specific implications Decontextual thinking Ability to separate prior knowledge/beliefs from new evidence to the contrary

32 Hypothetical-deductive reasoning
Which factor makes the pendulum go faster or slower? Length of string Weight Point of release Amount of impetus The shorter the string the faster the swing

33 Adolescent egocentrism
Enhanced ability to reflect on one’s own and other’s thoughts Imaginary audience Personal fable “No one has ever felt like this before!” “I drive better when I’m drunk!”

34 Cognition in Adulthood
Formal operations requires Normal intelligence Higher education (scientific thinking) Lower performance on formal operations Use only in field of expertise Postformal thought Relativistic thinking: Labouvie-Vief No absolute answer in many situations

35 Piaget Contributions Stimulated much research Correct about the sequence of cognitive development Challenges Underestimated young minds Focused on competence Domain specific rather than stages Social influences left out (too much the “isolated scientist.”

36 Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg
Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg


38 Vygotsky Emphasized the socio-cultural context Culture affects how and what we think Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Accomplishment with guidance Where lessons should be aimed Guided participation (a form of scaffolding) learning Private speech/ guides behavior (3 & 4 yr olds)

39 Cognitive Development Vygotsky’s Theory
The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) student can work with the student can work assistance of an instructor ________________________ independently Language and Thought Develop independently of each other Have external or social origins Scaffolding Teacher adjusts the level of support as performance rises ZPD

40 Scaffolding Applications of Vygotsky’s Theory
New Task = Mentor + Learner 2. Time Passes = Gradual Release 3. Learner Takes on the Responsibility for learning Scaffolding


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