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World of Insects Characteristics, Orders, and Collecting.

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Presentation on theme: "World of Insects Characteristics, Orders, and Collecting."— Presentation transcript:

1 World of Insects Characteristics, Orders, and Collecting

2 What You Should Know About Insects …

3 Taxonomy Kingdom – Animalia Phylum – Arthropoda Class - Insecta

4 Insects Are Arthropods Insects are the largest group of Arthropods Jointed appendages (bendable) Segmented bodies Exoskeleton of Chitin that must be molted to grow Related to spiders, ticks, scorpions, millipedes, crustacean s

5 MAIN CHARACTERISTICS Three body regions – head, thorax, and abdomen One pair antenna (head) Six legs or 3 pairs (thorax) One-two pairs of wings (thorax)


7 Count the Legs! SIX THORAX There are ALWAYS SIX legs, and they are attached to the THORAX

8 Antenna One Pair on head Jointed Sensory (smell) Called “feelers” Filiform most common shape (segments = size) May be modified FILIFORM

9 Antenna Modifications

10 Wings or No Wings Most adults have 2 pairs Called forewings and hindwings Some insects are wingless (silverfish, fleas, some termites and ants)

11 More on Wings A network of Veins strengthens wing s MEMBRANEOUS (clear) WINGS

12 Some Wings Are Covered With Powdery Scales BUTTERFLIES & MOTHS

13 Wings May Be Modified Order Diptera (flies) 2 nd pair of wings modified into HALTERES Used for balance Makes flies hard to catch!

14 Beetle Wings Hard Forewing called Elytra Meet in straight line down the abdomen Membranous hindwings folded underneath (flight) ELYTRA



17 Why Can’t I Call All of Them Bugs? EVERY BUG NOT ALL INSECTSEVERY BUG is an insect, but NOT ALL INSECTS are bugs! HEMIPTERATrue BUGS are in the Order HEMIPTERA Posterior thorax is triangular; called SCUTELLUMPosterior thorax is triangular; called SCUTELLUM Last 3 rd of wing CLEARLast 3 rd of wing CLEAR

18 Which of these are BUGS? ALL

19 More Hemipterans Assassin Bug Giant Water Bug Leaf Hopper Water Boatman

20 Coleoptera beetles Called beetles exoskeleton Tough exoskeleton Elytra Forewings called Elytra Fly with membranous hindwings Larva called grubs Rhinoceros beetle Cucumber beetle Ladybird beetle

21 Ephemeroptera MayfliesCalled Mayflies aquaticnaiadsJuveniles are aquatic; called naiads Adults found near water & don’t feedAdults found near water & don’t feed Adults reproduce & die in 24 hoursAdults reproduce & die in 24 hours Soft bodies with 2 long Ceri (tail fibers)Soft bodies with 2 long Ceri (tail fibers) ADULT NAIAD

22 Diptera mosquitoes fliesContains mosquitoes & flies One pairOne pair functional wings halteresClub-shaped halteres for balance hairyBodies often hairy Green Bottle fly Hover Fly Fruit Fly Aedes Mosquito

23 Dermaptera earwigsCalled earwigs flatLong, flat bodies ForcepsForceps (pincers) on end of abdomen Short, hard forewingsShort, hard forewings (membranous wings folded underneath mandiblesLarge jaws (mandibles) on head EARWIG EATING CATERPILLAR PINCERS

24 Orthoptera Grasshoppers, locusts, crickets, katydidsGrasshoppers, locusts, crickets, katydids longVery long bodies jumpingRear legs modified for jumping Females with egg laying tube (ovipositor on end of abdomen) Often communicate with chirping sounds

25 Lepidoptera Moths, butterflies, & skippersMoths, butterflies, & skippers SiphoningSiphoning mouthparts coiled under head Powdery scalesPowdery scales on wings flatButterflies fold wings flat above body at rest Mothsnight activeMoths are night active Important plant pollinators

26 Neuroptera LacewingsLacewings Net veinedNet veined wings Small, delicate insects Long antennaLong antenna Predators on other insects May feed on nectar

27 Thysanoptera ThripsThrips fringed wingsTwo pairs of fringed wings plant sapFeed on plant sap

28 Isoptera TermitesTermites coloniesLive in colonies woodFeed on wood Soft bodiesSoft bodies & short antenna CastesCastes – workers, soldiers, kings, and queen

29 Mecoptera Scorpion fliesScorpion flies abdominal segments curvedLast abdominal segments curved like scorpion narrow wingsTwo pairs of narrow wings beak (rostrum)Head elongated into a beak (rostrum) LongLong antenna

30 Homoptera Cicadas, leaf hoppers, wingless aphidsCicadas, leaf hoppers, wingless aphids roof like membranousIf wings present, held roof like over body & membranous Piercing-suckingPiercing-sucking mouthparts Aphids Cicada Leafhopper

31 Odonata Dragonflies & damselfliesDragonflies & damselflies Dragonflies perpendicularDragonflies hold clear wings spread perpendicular to body at rest Damselflies together over abdomenDamselflies hold clear wings together over abdomen

32 Plecoptera StonefliesStoneflies Aquatic nymphsAquatic nymphs adults short livedAerial adults are short lived drumming soundMake drumming sound to find mates

33 Hymenoptera Bees, ants, waspsBees, ants, wasps Narrow waiNarrow waist connects thorax & abdomen Abdomen curvedAbdomen curved downward stingerMay have stinger on end of abdomen Carpenter bee Red ant Yellow jacket


35 Thysanura Called Silverfish Found around houses or outside under stones or wood Fast runners Damage books Secretive and active at night. Flat, long bodies Long antennae Three, long, tail like appendages

36 Siphonaptera FleasFleas EctoparasitesEctoparasites Bodies laterally compressed hind jumping legsEnlarged hind jumping legs Very short antenna


38 Collembola springtailsCalled springtails Small & soft bodied FurculaFurcula (jumping mechanism) on abdomen folds under the bodyFurcula folds under the body at rest decaying plant materialFound in decaying plant material

39 Anoplura Sucking liceSucking lice ParasitesParasites of mammals smallVery small Headbody liceHead and body lice are examples Attracted to children’s fine hair Carry disease

40 Mallophaga Biting liceBiting lice birds & mammalsExternal parasites on birds & mammals Broad headBroad head & flattened body Feed on dead skin, feathers, and fur


42 Incomplete INCOMPLETE METAMORPHOUS Insects change shape gradually!

43 Complete Metamorphosis Four stages that all look different

44 Amorphic Insects SpringtailsSilverfish

45 Insects with Complete Metamorphosis ColeopteraColeoptera (beetles) HymenopteraHymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps) Diptera LepidopteraDiptera (flies) Lepidoptera (butterflies) EGG  LARVA  PUPA  ADULT

46 Insects with Incomplete Metamorphosis SiphonapteraSiphonaptera (fleas) IsopteraIsoptera (termites) OrthopteraOrthoptera (grasshoppers & crickets) HemipteraHemiptera (true bugs) HomopteraHomoptera (cicadas & hoppers) EGG  NYMPH  ADULT Wings NOT fully developed


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