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Entomology 462 Orders of Insects David J. Shetlar, Ph.D. The BugDoc The Ohio State University, OARDC & OSU Extension Columbus, OH Revised: September, 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Entomology 462 Orders of Insects David J. Shetlar, Ph.D. The BugDoc The Ohio State University, OARDC & OSU Extension Columbus, OH Revised: September, 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Entomology 462 Orders of Insects David J. Shetlar, Ph.D. The BugDoc The Ohio State University, OARDC & OSU Extension Columbus, OH Revised: September, 2007 - DJS

2 Class Hexapoda (the insects) Three tagmata – head, thorax, abdomen Thorax with three pairs of legs; normally two pairs of wings in adult stage Head with one pair of antennae Respiration by trachea Terrestrial & fresh water inhabitants

3 Class Hexapoda (all have one pair of antennae, a head, thorax & abdominal regions, three pair of legs, adults usually have wings, use trachea) Life Cycle Groups Simple Metamorphosis (=incomplete) - egg, nymph, adult stages Complete Metamorphosis - egg, larva, pupa, adult stages

4 Incomplete Metamorphosis Example (hairy chinch bug) egg 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th adult instar instar instar instar instar Egg Nymphal Adult Stage Stage Stage

5 Incomplete Metamorphosis Example (hairy chinch bug) egg 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th normal wing short wing instar instar instar instar instar adult adult Egg Nymphal Adult Stage Stage Stage

6 Complete Metamorphosis Example (May/June beetle) egg 1st 2nd 3rd pupa adult instar instar instar Egg Larval Pupal Adult Stage Stage

7 Complete Metamorphosis Example (northern masked chafer) egg 1st 2nd 3rd pupa adult instar instar instar Egg Larval Pupal Adult Stage Stage

8 Hexapod Orders Entognathous Hexapods – Order Protura Order Collembola Order Diplura Ectognathous apterygote Hexapods – Order Microcoryphia Order Thysanura Pterygote Hexapods – (simple metamorphosis) Order Ephemeroptera Order Odonata Order Orthoptera Order Phasmatodea Order Dermaptera Order Plecoptera Order Isoptera (simple metamorphosis contd) Order Mantodea Order Blattodea Order Hemiptera Order Thysanoptera Order Psocoptera Order Phthiraptera (complete metamorphosis) Order Coleoptera Order Neuroptera Order Hymenoptera Order Trichoptera Order Lepidoptera Order Siphonaptera Order Diptera

9 Orders of Insects (no metamorphosis) Some consider these groups insect-like and place in different class or subclass. Adults do not have wings and may molt after becoming mature Thysanura - silverfish, firebrats Collembola - springtails

10 Thysanura (silverfish, firebrats; 0.4K spp.) [no wings as adults, 2-3 caudal appendages (two cerci and sometimes central telson); adults may continue to molt]

11 Collembola (springtails; >6K spp.) [no wings as adults, caudal appendage designed for jumping (furcula & colliphore); adults may molt]

12 Orders of Insects (simple metamorphosis) Ephemeroptera - mayflies, shadflies Odonata - dragonflies, damselflies Orthoptera - grasshoppers, crickets, katydids Dermaptera – earwigs Plecoptera - stoneflies Isoptera - termites

13 Ephemeroptera (Mayflies, shadflies, Canadian soldiers; 2K spp.) [front wings large, triangular, held over body at rest; hind wings small or absent; aquatic nymphs with abdominal gills; caudal appendages (2 or 3) long; chewing mouthparts often non-functional in adult]

14 Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies; 5K spp.) [front and hind wings narrow with many cross veins, membranous; aquatic nymphs (naiads) predatory with caudal or rectal gills; antennae bristlelike, no abdominal cerci; chewing mouthparts]

15 Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, Katydids; >20K spp.) [front wings leathery, hind wings folded like a fan, chewing mouthparts, two cerci - usually short]

16 Dermaptera (earwigs; 1.8K spp.) [front wings short, leathery; hind wings double folded; abdominal cerci forceps-like; chewing mouthparts] European earwig with eggs Seashore earwig adult

17 Plecoptera (stoneflies; 2K spp.) [front wings narrow; hind wings folded fanlike; aquatic nymphs (naiads) with abdominal gills; abdominal cerci straight, moderately long; chewing mouthparts]

18 Isoptera (termites; >2.3K spp.) [social insects, winged reproductives with both wings same size and membranous; straight or curved antennae consists of beadlike segments; abdomen broadly joined to thorax; one to two-segmented cerci; chewing mouthparts]

19 Orders of Insects (incomplete metamorphosis contd) Mantoidea – mantids Blattodea – cockroaches Hemiptera - true bugs & bug-like insects Thysanoptera - thrips Psocoptera - barklice, booklice Phthiraptera - biting & sucking lice

20 Mantodea (mantids, praying mantis; ~1.8K spp.) [front legs raptorial (modified for grasping), prothroax elongated, chewing mouthparts, two short cerci]

21 [body flattened and oval, front wings leathery, hind wings folded like a fan, chewing mouthparts, two short cerci] Blattodea (cockroaches; <4K spp.)

22 [front wings half leathery & half membranous; hind wings membranous; usually long antennae; sucking mouthparts arise from front of head] Hemiptera (s.o. Heteroptera) (true bugs; 23K spp.)

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25 Hemiptera ( s.o. Auchenorrhyncha ) (buglike insects: cicadas, leaf, plant & tree hoppers; 33K spp.) [front wings same texture throughout, leathery or membranous (wings often absent); long or bristlelike antennae; sucking mouthparts arise from back of head or between front legs]

26 Hemiptera (s.o. Sternorrhyncha) (buglike insects: psyllids, whiteflies, aphids, mealybugs, & scales)

27 Thysanoptera (thrips; 4.5K spp.) [small; front and hind wings bladelike with hair fringe, often absent; mouthparts modified rasping sucking; antennae short]

28 Psocoptera (psocids, booklice, barklice; >3K spp.) [front wings with reduced venation; hind wings reduced or absent; wings often absent; distinctive frontal bulge on head; long antennae; chewing mouthparts; booklice are extremely flattened]

29 [very flat, small; no wings; chewing mouthparts; external parasites of birds and mammals] Chicken biting louse Phthiraptera (Mallophaga) (biting lice; 2.7K spp.)

30 [small, flattened; no wings; sucking mouthparts; external parasites of mammals] Human head louse Human crab louse Phthiraptera (Anoplura) (sucking lice; 0.3K spp.)

31 Orders of Insects (complete metamorphosis) Coleoptera – beetles Neuroptera - dobsonfly, lacewings Hymenoptera - sawflies, bees, wasps Tricoptera - caddisflies Lepidoptera - butterflies & moths Siphonaptera - fleas Diptera - gnats, mosquitoes, flies

32 Coleoptera (beetles & weevils; >300K spp.) [front wings shelllike, usually covering abdomen; hind wings membranous, folded under forewings; antennae variable, but evident; chewing mouthparts; larvae variously shaped - elongate, grublike, etc.] Ground beetle Ground beetle larva Passalid beetle

33 Coleoptera (beetles & weevils; >300K spp.) Lady beetle Rove beetle Bluegrass billbug adult & larva May/June beetle

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36 Neuroptera (dobsonfly, lacewings, antlions; 5.5K spp.) [two pair wings with numerous veins, elongate larvae with elongate mandibles, larvae & adults usually predatory] Green lacewing adult Eggs Cocoon Larva

37 Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, sawflies; 115K spp.) [front wings large, hind wings smaller, both membraneous; chewing mouthparts; some with stings - modified ovipositors; larvae caterpillar-like, sawflies; or maggot-like] Redheaded pine sawfly adult, larvae, & pupae

38 Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, sawflies; 115K spp.) Aphid wasp parasitizing aphid Ichneumonid wasp attacking wood-boring larva Acrobat antsYellowjacket wasp

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40 Trichoptera (caddisflies; >7K spp.) [mothlike adults but no scales on wings; front wings narrow, often covered with hairs; larvae caterpillar-like and aquatic]

41 Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths, caterpillars; 150K spp.) [front and hind wings generally covered with scales; adult mouthparts a sucking tube, larvae have chewing mouthparts and prolegs on abdomen] Red admiral butterfly Cranberry girdler moth Luna moth

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43 Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths, caterpillars; 150K spp.) Fiery skipper butterfly – adult, egg, larva & pupa in cocoon

44 Siphonaptera (fleas; 2.4K spp.) [wingless, extoparasitic adults; laterally compressed; jumping hind legs; larvae have chewing mouthparts and resemble midge larvae] Cat flea adult and larva

45 Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitoes; >150K spp.) [front wings membranous; hind wings reduced to small balance organ - haltere; mouthparts piercing- sucking or sponging sucking; larvae wireworm shaped or maggots with chewing or rasping mouthparts] Mosquito Moth fly House fly

46 Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitoes; >150K spp.) Hover fly adult (on flower), eggs near aphids and larva eating aphids Fruit fly

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