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Characteristics and Orders

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1 Characteristics and Orders
Insects Characteristics and Orders

2 What You Should Know About Insects …

3 Taxonomy Kingdom – Animalia Phylum – Arthropoda Class - Insecta

4 Arthropods Include: spiders (Arachnids), ticks, scorpions, millipedes, crustaceans, horseshoe crab, centipedes and of course INSECTS 4

5 Insects Are Arthropods
Insects are the largest group of Arthropods - 900,000 different species On the planet for 350,000,000 yrs Jointed appendages (bendable) Segmented bodies Exoskeleton of Chitin that must be molted to grow

6 All Insects Have… Three body regions – head, thorax, and abdomen
One pair antenna (head) Six legs or 3 pairs (thorax) One-two pairs of wings (thorax)


8 Head 2 antennae (feel, hear and smell) 1,000 sensory cells
(One species of moth can smell one molecule EIGHT miles away) 2 compound eyes - each has 30,000 lenses 3 ocelli - simple eyes to sense light and dark Special mouthparts - several specific designs

9 Antenna One Pair on head Jointed Sensory (smell) Called “feelers”
Filiform most common shape (segments = size) Come in many shapes FILIFORM

10 Antenna Modifications- Draw a couple

11 Mouth part types Draw a sample of each
Chewing, sucking, piercing, lapping and sponging

12 Chewing

13 Youtube video

14 Sucking

15 Youtube video

16 Piercing

17 Youtube Video

18 Lapping

19 Youtube video

20 Sponging

21 Youtube video

22 Thorax 3 pair of jointed legs covered in sensory hairs. They are more than 110x more sensitive than our tongues. 2 pair of wings, if present

23 Insect Legs Examples: Digging, jumping, predatory and swimming

24 There are ALWAYS SIX legs, and they are attached to the THORAX
Count the Legs! There are ALWAYS SIX legs, and they are attached to the THORAX

25 Wings or No Wings Most adults have 2 pairs
Some insects are wingless (silverfish, fleas, some termites and ants)

26 A network of Veins strengthens wings MEMBRANEOUS (clear) WINGS
More on Wings A network of Veins strengthens wings MEMBRANEOUS (clear) WINGS

27 Some Wings Are Covered With Powdery Scales

28 Wings May Be Modified Order Diptera (flies)
2nd pair of wings modified into HALTERES Used for balance Makes flies hard to catch!

29 Beetle Wings Meet in straight line down the abdomen
ELYTRA Hard Forewing called Elytra Meet in straight line down the abdomen Membranous hindwings folded underneath (flight)

30 Abdomen Houses reproductive organs and digestive system

31 Evolution of Insects

32 1. Oldest All insects began as wingless
Less than 1 % of insects belong to this category They go through incomplete metamorphosis SILVERFISH: THYSANURA

33 Youtube: Silverfish

34 2. Development of Wings They have wings, but they can not fold them = harder to escape predators Still go through incomplete metamorphosis

35 Youtube: Dragonfly

36 3. Development of Flexing Wings
They have wings and can fold them. This allows them to go more places. Incomplete metamorphosis Examples: Grasshopper, praying mantids

37 Youtube: Mantid

38 4. Complete Metamorphosis
Egg-larva-pupa- adult 80% of insects Completely different animal Key factor to increasing diversity and survival Taps two different food sources

39 Youtube: Complete Metamorphosis

40 Why Study Insects? 10 million insects for every human on Earth.
Over 90% of all animals are invertebrates

41 Insects are helpful Decompose waste
Control other insects- good ones eat bad Pollination Make products: silk and honey Till soil

42 Insects are harmful Spread disease - yellow fever, rocky mountain fever Destroy crops- 90 billion dollars worth of damage each year Locust attack- 10 billion left devastation miles wide and long



45 Why Can’t I Call All of Them Bugs?
EVERY BUG is an insect, but NOT ALL INSECTS are bugs! True BUGS are in the Order HEMIPTERA Posterior thorax is triangular; called SCUTELLUM Last 3rd of wing CLEAR

46 Which of these are BUGS? ALL

47 More Hemipterans Assassin Bug Water Boatman Giant Water Bug
Leaf Hopper

48 Coleoptera Called beetles Tough exoskeleton Forewings called Elytra
Fly with membranous hindwings Larva called grubs Cucumber beetle Ladybird beetle Rhinoceros beetle

49 Ephemeroptera Called Mayflies Juveniles are aquatic; called naiads
Adults found near water & don’t feed Adults reproduce & die in 24 hours Soft bodies with 2 long Ceri (tail fibers) ADULT NAIAD

50 Diptera Contains mosquitoes & flies One pair functional wings
Club-shaped halteres for balance Bodies often hairy Green Bottle fly Hover Fly Fruit Fly Aedes Mosquito

Dermaptera Called earwigs Long, flat bodies Forceps (pincers) on end of abdomen Short, hard forewings (membranous wings folded underneath Large jaws (mandibles) on head PINCERS EARWIG EATING CATERPILLAR

52 Orthoptera Grasshoppers, locusts, crickets, katydids Very long bodies
Rear legs modified for jumping Females with egg laying tube (ovipositor on end of abdomen) Often communicate with chirping sounds

53 Lepidoptera Moths, butterflies, & skippers
Siphoning mouthparts coiled under head Powdery scales on wings Butterflies fold wings flat above body at rest Moths are night active Important plant pollinators

54 Neuroptera Lacewings Net veined wings Small, delicate insects
Long antenna Predators on other insects May feed on nectar

55 Thysanoptera Thrips Two pairs of fringed wings Feed on plant sap

56 Isoptera Termites Live in colonies Feed on wood
Soft bodies & short antenna Castes – workers, soldiers, kings, and queen

57 Mecoptera Scorpion flies Last abdominal segments curved like scorpion
Two pairs of narrow wings Head elongated into a beak (rostrum) Long antenna

58 Homoptera Cicadas, leaf hoppers, wingless aphids
If wings present, held roof like over body & membranous Piercing-sucking mouthparts Cicada Leafhopper

59 Odonata Dragonflies & damselflies
Dragonflies hold clear wings spread perpendicular to body at rest Damselflies hold clear wings together over abdomen

60 Plecoptera Stoneflies Aquatic nymphs Aerial adults are short lived
Make drumming sound to find mates

61 Hymenoptera Bees, ants, wasps Narrow waist connects thorax & abdomen
Abdomen curved downward May have stinger on end of abdomen Carpenter bee Red ant Yellow jacket


63 Thysanura Called Silverfish
Found around houses or outside under stones or wood Fast runners Damage books Secretive and active at night. Flat, long bodies Long antennae Three, long, tail like appendages

64 Siphonaptera Fleas Ectoparasites Bodies laterally compressed
Enlarged hind jumping legs Very short antenna


66 Collembola Called springtails Small & soft bodied
Furcula (jumping mechanism) on abdomen Furcula folds under the body at rest Found in decaying plant material

67 Anoplura Sucking lice Parasites of mammals Very small
Head and body lice are examples Attracted to children’s fine hair Carry disease

68 Mallophaga Biting lice External parasites on birds & mammals
Broad head & flattened body Feed on dead skin, feathers, and fur


70 INCOMPLETE METAMORPHOUS Insects change shape gradually!

71 Insects with Incomplete Metamorphosis
EGG  NYMPH  ADULT Siphonaptera (fleas) Isoptera (termites) Orthoptera (grasshoppers & crickets) Hemiptera (true bugs) Homoptera (cicadas & hoppers) Wings NOT fully developed 71

72 Youtube Video

73 Complete Metamorphosis Four stages that all look different

74 Insects with Complete Metamorphosis
EGG  LARVA  PUPA  ADULT Coleoptera (beetles) Hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps) Diptera (flies) Lepidoptera (butterflies)

75 Youtube Video


77 Paul!!

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