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Insects Characteristics and Orders. What You Should Know About Insects …

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Presentation on theme: "Insects Characteristics and Orders. What You Should Know About Insects …"— Presentation transcript:

1 Insects Characteristics and Orders

2 What You Should Know About Insects …

3 Taxonomy Kingdom – Animalia Phylum – Arthropoda Class - Insecta

4 Arthropods Include: spiders (Arachnids), ticks, scorpions, millipedes, crustacean s, horseshoe crab, centipedes and of course INSECTS

5 Insects Are Arthropods Insects are the largest group of Arthropods - 900,000 different species On the planet for 350,000,000 yrs Jointed appendages (bendable) Segmented bodies Exoskeleton of Chitin that must be molted to grow

6 All Insects Have… Three body regions – head, thorax, and abdomen One pair antenna (head) Six legs or 3 pairs (thorax) One-two pairs of wings (thorax)

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8 Head 2 antennae (feel, hear and smell) 1,000 sensory cells (One species of moth can smell one molecule EIGHT miles away) 2 compound eyes - each has 30,000 lenses 3 ocelli - simple eyes to sense light and dark Special mouthparts - several specific designs

9 Antenna One Pair on head Jointed Sensory (smell) Called “feelers” Filiform most common shape (segments = size) Come in many shapes FILIFORM

10 Antenna Modifications- Draw a couple

11 Mouth part types Draw a sample of each Chewing, sucking, piercing, lapping and sponging

12 Chewing

13 Youtube video /watch?v=1- nd8EWwy9E&feature=re latedhttp://www.youtube.com /watch?v=1- nd8EWwy9E&feature=re lated

14 Sucking

15 Youtube video /watch?v=qgcWRrbHi2E &feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com /watch?v=qgcWRrbHi2E &feature=related

16 Piercing

17 Youtube Video /watch?v=zMgG5K0Yep4http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=zMgG5K0Yep4

18 Lapping

19 Youtube video

20 Sponging

21 Youtube video

22 Thorax 3 pair of jointed legs covered in sensory hairs. They are more than 110x more sensitive than our tongues. 2 pair of wings, if present

23 Insect Legs Examples: Digging, jumping, predatory and swimming

24 Count the Legs! SIX THORAX There are ALWAYS SIX legs, and they are attached to the THORAX

25 Wings or No Wings Most adults have 2 pairs Some insects are wingless (silverfish, fleas, some termites and ants)

26 More on Wings A network of Veins strengthens wing s MEMBRANEOUS (clear) WINGS

27 Some Wings Are Covered With Powdery Scales BUTTERFLIES & MOTHS

28 Wings May Be Modified Order Diptera (flies) 2 nd pair of wings modified into HALTERES Used for balance Makes flies hard to catch!

29 Beetle Wings Hard Forewing called Elytra Meet in straight line down the abdomen Membranous hindwings folded underneath (flight) ELYTRA

30 Abdomen Houses reproductive organs and digestive system

31 Evolution of Insects

32 1. Oldest All insects began as wingless Less than 1 % of insects belong to this category They go through incomplete metamorphosis SILVERFISH: THYSANURA

33 Youtube: Silverfish /watch?v=eJKl4yethrIhttp://www.youtube.com /watch?v=eJKl4yethrI

34 2. Development of Wings They have wings, but they can not fold them = harder to escape predators Still go through incomplete metamorphosis

35 Youtube: Dragonfly /watch?v=Ezq_JWd1Sd8 &feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com /watch?v=Ezq_JWd1Sd8 &feature=related

36 3. Development of Flexing Wings They have wings and can fold them. This allows them to go more places. Incomplete metamorphosis Examples: Grasshopper, praying mantids

37 Youtube: Mantid watch?v=urk- _Uh2vbg&feature=fvwrelhttp://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=urk- _Uh2vbg&feature=fvwrel

38 4. Complete Metamorphosis Egg-larva-pupa- adult 80% of insects Completely different animal Key factor to increasing diversity and survival Taps two different food sources

39 Youtube: Complete Metamorphosis 9chttp://www.youtube.com/user/backyardbugs#p/u/54/wFfO7f8Vr 9c

40 Why Study Insects? 10 million insects for every human on Earth. Over 90% of all animals are invertebrates

41 Insects are helpful Decompose waste Control other insects- good ones eat bad Pollination Make products: silk and honey Till soil

42 Insects are harmful Spread disease - yellow fever, rocky mountain fever Destroy crops- 90 billion dollars worth of damage each year m/watch?v=wxHOxC mbs-8 Locust attack- 10 billion left devastation miles wide and long

43 CIRCLE THE INSECTS

44 INSECT ORDERS INSECTS WITH WINGS

45 Why Can’t I Call All of Them Bugs? EVERY BUG NOT ALL INSECTSEVERY BUG is an insect, but NOT ALL INSECTS are bugs! HEMIPTERATrue BUGS are in the Order HEMIPTERA Posterior thorax is triangular; called SCUTELLUMPosterior thorax is triangular; called SCUTELLUM Last 3 rd of wing CLEARLast 3 rd of wing CLEAR

46 Which of these are BUGS? ALL

47 More Hemipterans Assassin Bug Giant Water Bug Leaf Hopper Water Boatman

48 Coleoptera beetles Called beetles exoskeleton Tough exoskeleton Elytra Forewings called Elytra Fly with membranous hindwings Larva called grubs Rhinoceros beetle Cucumber beetle Ladybird beetle

49 Ephemeroptera MayfliesCalled Mayflies aquaticnaiadsJuveniles are aquatic; called naiads Adults found near water & don’t feedAdults found near water & don’t feed Adults reproduce & die in 24 hoursAdults reproduce & die in 24 hours Soft bodies with 2 long Ceri (tail fibers)Soft bodies with 2 long Ceri (tail fibers) ADULT NAIAD

50 Diptera mosquitoes fliesContains mosquitoes & flies One pairOne pair functional wings halteresClub-shaped halteres for balance hairyBodies often hairy Green Bottle fly Hover Fly Fruit Fly Aedes Mosquito

51 Dermaptera earwigsCalled earwigs flatLong, flat bodies ForcepsForceps (pincers) on end of abdomen Short, hard forewingsShort, hard forewings (membranous wings folded underneath mandiblesLarge jaws (mandibles) on head EARWIG EATING CATERPILLAR PINCERS

52 Orthoptera Grasshoppers, locusts, crickets, katydidsGrasshoppers, locusts, crickets, katydids longVery long bodies jumpingRear legs modified for jumping Females with egg laying tube (ovipositor on end of abdomen) Often communicate with chirping sounds

53 Lepidoptera Moths, butterflies, & skippersMoths, butterflies, & skippers SiphoningSiphoning mouthparts coiled under head Powdery scalesPowdery scales on wings flatButterflies fold wings flat above body at rest Mothsnight activeMoths are night active Important plant pollinators

54 Neuroptera LacewingsLacewings Net veinedNet veined wings Small, delicate insects Long antennaLong antenna Predators on other insects May feed on nectar

55 Thysanoptera ThripsThrips fringed wingsTwo pairs of fringed wings plant sapFeed on plant sap

56 Isoptera TermitesTermites coloniesLive in colonies woodFeed on wood Soft bodiesSoft bodies & short antenna CastesCastes – workers, soldiers, kings, and queen

57 Mecoptera Scorpion fliesScorpion flies abdominal segments curvedLast abdominal segments curved like scorpion narrow wingsTwo pairs of narrow wings beak (rostrum)Head elongated into a beak (rostrum) LongLong antenna

58 Homoptera Cicadas, leaf hoppers, wingless aphidsCicadas, leaf hoppers, wingless aphids roof like membranousIf wings present, held roof like over body & membranous Piercing-suckingPiercing-sucking mouthparts Aphids Cicada Leafhopper

59 Odonata Dragonflies & damselfliesDragonflies & damselflies Dragonflies perpendicularDragonflies hold clear wings spread perpendicular to body at rest Damselflies together over abdomenDamselflies hold clear wings together over abdomen

60 Plecoptera StonefliesStoneflies Aquatic nymphsAquatic nymphs adults short livedAerial adults are short lived drumming soundMake drumming sound to find mates

61 Hymenoptera Bees, ants, waspsBees, ants, wasps Narrow waiNarrow waist connects thorax & abdomen Abdomen curvedAbdomen curved downward stingerMay have stinger on end of abdomen Carpenter bee Red ant Yellow jacket

62 INSECT ORDERS WINGLESS INSECTS

63 Thysanura Called Silverfish Found around houses or outside under stones or wood Fast runners Damage books Secretive and active at night. Flat, long bodies Long antennae Three, long, tail like appendages

64 Siphonaptera FleasFleas EctoparasitesEctoparasites Bodies laterally compressed hind jumping legsEnlarged hind jumping legs Very short antenna

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66 Collembola springtailsCalled springtails Small & soft bodied FurculaFurcula (jumping mechanism) on abdomen folds under the bodyFurcula folds under the body at rest decaying plant materialFound in decaying plant material

67 Anoplura Sucking liceSucking lice ParasitesParasites of mammals smallVery small Headbody liceHead and body lice are examples Attracted to children’s fine hair Carry disease

68 Mallophaga Biting liceBiting lice birds & mammalsExternal parasites on birds & mammals Broad headBroad head & flattened body Feed on dead skin, feathers, and fur

69 Metamorphosis CHANGE IN FORM FROM EGG TO ADULT

70 Incomplete INCOMPLETE METAMORPHOUS Insects change shape gradually!

71 Insects with Incomplete Metamorphosis SiphonapteraSiphonaptera (fleas) IsopteraIsoptera (termites) OrthopteraOrthoptera (grasshoppers & crickets) HemipteraHemiptera (true bugs) HomopteraHomoptera (cicadas & hoppers) EGG  NYMPH  ADULT Wings NOT fully developed

72 Youtube Video /watch?v=NutMWUlca-ohttp://www.youtube.com /watch?v=NutMWUlca-o

73 Complete Metamorphosis Four stages that all look different

74 Insects with Complete Metamorphosis ColeopteraColeoptera (beetles) HymenopteraHymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps) Diptera LepidopteraDiptera (flies) Lepidoptera (butterflies) EGG  LARVA  PUPA  ADULT

75 Youtube Video atch?v=Ype1Ik- k7VE&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=Ype1Ik- k7VE&feature=related atch?v=L21IGAhO-S4http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=L21IGAhO-S4

76

77 Paul!!


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