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Developing Entomological Skills and Techniques (how to be a bugdork)
Why Insects? Most numerous and diverse animals Live in all habitats Most important (good and bad) for humans They rock and it’s fun…
Kingdom ANIMAL Phylum ARTHROPODA
Orders Collembola Thysanura Ephemeroptera Odanata Phasmatodea Orthoptera Mantodea Blattodea Isoptera Dermaptera Plecoptera Psocoptera Phthiraptera Hemiptera Thysanoptera Neuroptera Coleoptera Mecoptera Siphonaptera Diptera Trichoptera Lepidoptera Hymenoptera
Orders Collembola Thysanura Ephemeroptera Odanata Phasmatodea Orthoptera Mantodea Blattodea Isoptera Dermaptera Plecoptera Psocoptera Phthiraptera Hemiptera Thysanoptera Neuroptera Coleoptera Mecoptera Siphonaptera Diptera Trichoptera Lepidoptera Hymenoptera NON-Insects
Types of Metamorphosis Ametabolous (most primitive) Hemimetabolous Paurometabolous Holometabolous (most advanced)
Ametabolous – no metamorphosis Insect Metamorphosis Young = nymphs
Ametabolous – no metamorphosis Insect Metamorphosis * The stages of immature insects are called instars
Hemimetabolous – incomplete metamorphosis Insect Metamorphosis
Hemimetabolous – incomplete metamorphosis Insect Metamorphosis Naiad – aquatic nymph
Paurametabolous – gradual metamorphosis Insect Metamorphosis instars
Paurametabolous – gradual metamorphosis Insect Metamorphosis “Nymph” 1 2 3
Holometabolous – complete metamorphosis Insect Metamorphosis Adults and young look completely different instars 123
- maggot, worm-like shaped body - feeding apparatus either mouth hooks or mandibles - no legs Vermiform: e.g., flies Insect Metamorphosis
- Slightly flattened body - mandibulate feeding apparatus - 3 pairs of thoracic legs Elaterifom: e.g., mealworms Insect Metamorphosis
- caterpillar-like shaped body - mandibulate feeding apparatus - 3 pairs of thoracic legs and 5-7 pairs of abdominal prolegs Eruciform: e.g., butterflies Insect Metamorphosis
Important Questions Wings or no wings? – How many? Kind of Mouthparts? Where did I find it? Any special adaptations? – Raptorial legs, swimming legs – Camouflage?
Order Collembola: Springtails Coll = glue Embola= a bolt or wedge (collophore)
Springtails: Order Collembola
Order Thysanura: Silverfish Thysano= fringed ura= tail
Order Ephemeroptera: Mayflies ephemeros= short lived
Order Ephemeroptera: Mayflies
Order Odonata: Dragonfly and Damselfly dragonflies keep wings out when at rest… …while damselflies keep wings back over body at rest
Odonata = toothed jaw Order Odonata: Dragonfly and Damselfly
Order Phasmatodea: Walking sticks and Leaf Insects Phasm = phantom
Order Orthoptera: Grasshoppers, Crickets, Locusts & Katydids Ortho= straight Ptera= winged
Order Mantodea Praying mantids, soothsayers
Order Blattodea: Roaches Blatta - Greek word for roach
Order Isoptera: Termites Iso = even ptera = wing
Order Dermaptera: Earwigs Derm = leather Ptera = wing
Order Plecoptera: Stoneflies Pleco = folded or pleated Ptera = wing
Psoco= gnawing Ptera= wing Bad Name! Think of them as winged insects that gnaw. Order Psocoptera: Bark & Book lice
pthir = lice aptera = no wings Two Suborders – Mallophaga: The chewing lice – Anoplura: The sucking lice Order Pthiraptera: Lice
Anoplura: Sucking Lice
Order Hemiptera: True Bugs, Scales, Aphids, Hoppers Etymology: hemi = half ptera = winged Hemiptera: Order Name Suborder Heteroptera = true bugs Suborder Auchenorrhyncha = hoppers and cicadas Suborder Sternorrhyncha = aphids and allies Refers to the true bugs
Suborder Heteroptera Hemelytra - sclerotized basal portion of wings
Order Thysanoptera: Thrips Thysan= fringed Ptera= winged
Order Neuroptera Neuro = nerve Ptera = wing Tons of different insects lumped into this group…
Order Coleoptera: Beetles
Coleoptera koleos- sheath (from Aristotle) fore wings called elytra Serve to protect the membranous hind wings (used in flight)
Order Mecoptera: Scorpionflies
Order Siphonaptera: The Fleas Siphon: a tube Aptera: wingless
Order Diptera: True Flies Di= two Ptera= wings True flies have only one pair of wings The hind pair = flight stabilizers called halteres.
Order Trichoptera: Caddisflies Tricho= hair Ptera= wings
Order Lepidoptera: Butterflies & Moths
Lepid = scales Ptera = wings
Order Hymenoptera: Bees, Wasps and Ants
Hymenoptera (Bees, wasps, ants) hymen = membrane Ptera = wings Greek Goddess of Marriage: Hymeno Goddess of marriage – Named for the joining of the wings
Hamuli = Small row of hooks on hind wing
Tricksters: Assassin Bugs and Ambush Bugs Count the Beak Segments! 3 4 Does the beak fit into a groove???
Tricksters: Flesh Flies and House Flies Flesh FlyHouse Fly
Horn fly Stable fly
Class Arachnida Order Solifugae Camel Spiders!!!!!
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