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Brookhaven Town (Suffolk County, Long Island, 350 Years Part VII: From Stuart to Orange Sovereignty, 1675-1691 comp. & ed. by Mark H. Rothenberg.

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Presentation on theme: "Brookhaven Town (Suffolk County, Long Island, 350 Years Part VII: From Stuart to Orange Sovereignty, 1675-1691 comp. & ed. by Mark H. Rothenberg."— Presentation transcript:

1 Brookhaven Town (Suffolk County, Long Island, 350 Years Part VII: From Stuart to Orange Sovereignty, comp. & ed. by Mark H. Rothenberg © 2003 The Patchogue-Medford Library Salutes the Town on its Anniversary

2 Neighboring New England Ablaze, Part 1 Enduring Bloodbath & Perfidy: King Philip’s War, In June 1675, a major Indian war erupted in Southern New England, as the Wampanoag, under Metacomet (known as King Philip) broke out of confinement on the Mount Hope Peninsula A war of revenge & decimation of the New England colonies ensured, sometimes called America’s first total war, in which the New England tribes were also decimated. In June 1675, a major Indian war erupted in Southern New England, as the Wampanoag, under Metacomet (known as King Philip) broke out of confinement on the Mount Hope Peninsula (in today’s Rhode Island, then part of Plymouth colony). A war of revenge & decimation of the New England colonies ensured, sometimes called America’s first total war, in which the New England tribes were also decimated. As one colonial settlement after another came under attack, colonial counterstrokes initially met with frequent ambush, or with thin air, while yet another settlement went up in flames, and other tribes soon joined the fray. Converted (“Praying”) Indians were rounded up and sent under guard to privation on islands in Boston Harbor, as a wave of paranoia swept the colonies. Until screening, reconnaissance, and “the skulking way of war” (as Patrick Malone puts it) were learned, & Indians were reincorporated as allies, on the colonial side, providing curtain for colonial troop movements, the New England frontier was was pushed back by about 40 years. War would spread as far north as Maine, where it would end, though Indian starvation & supply problems ended it sooner in the South. Official Stuart New-York took an opportunistic approach, until the weight of devastation sank in; alternately trying to distance itself from, take advantage of, & eventually sympathize with the troubles of, a New England under attack, eventually aiding and providing safe haven to New England refugees. Official Stuart New-York took an opportunistic approach, until the weight of devastation sank in; alternately trying to distance itself from, take advantage of, & eventually sympathize with the troubles of, a New England under attack, sometimes gloating over its former enemy’s discomfiture, carefully watching its own borders and Indians, eventually aiding and providing safe haven to New England refugees.

3 Neighboring New England Ablaze, Part 2 Enduring Bloodbath & Perfidy: King Philip’s War, In Puritan Brookhaven, where many were blood relations of, & in complete sympathy with, those suffering across the Sound, reaction would have different, more uniform, & cost the Stuarts dearly later. In Puritan Brookhaven, where many were blood relations of, & in complete sympathy with, those suffering across the Sound, reaction would have different, more uniform, & cost the Stuarts dearly later. Gov. Edmund Andros arrived in New-York in late 1664, inheriting the Duke’s renewal of the discarded Dutch claim to Western Connecticut, including Hartford.On July 8, 1675 Andros with 2 sloops arrived off a recently reinforced Ft. Saybrook, at the mouth of the Connecticut River Gov. Edmund Andros arrived in New-York in late 1664, inheriting the Duke’s renewal of the discarded Dutch claim to Western Connecticut, including Hartford. On July 8, 1675 Andros with 2 sloops arrived off a recently reinforced Ft. Saybrook, at the mouth of the Connecticut River, frustrated in his intention to seize it by surprise coup, sail up the river and make good his claim. While his ships stood in check off shore for several days before returning to New York, the Connecticut militia had to be pulled back from the Narragansett frontier, that tribe threatening to go over to Philip. It is conceivable that some North Shore Brookhaven Town residents witnessed from a distance Gov. Andros’ abortive raid up L.I. Sound. Given Brookhaven’s allegiance first to Connecticut, locals would have taken a dim view of this. It is conceivable that some North Shore Brookhaven Town residents witnessed from a distance Gov. Andros’ abortive raid up L.I. Sound. Given Brookhaven’s allegiance first to Connecticut, locals would have taken a dim view of this. Mohawks, Philip briefly sought parley with the Mohawks, terror of New England Indians (according to 1 source by massacring a few & blaming it on the English, 1 escaping to inform the tribe), hoping to bring them into the war as Allies, just as his supplies & power were eroded. The Mohawks chased him back into New England, to New-York Colony’s general delight.

4 Neighboring New England Ablaze, Part 3 Enduring Bloodbath & Perfidy: King Philip’s War, Gov. Andros’ initial “treachery” was not forgotten, though his later humanity to refugees could not have gone unnoticed. Gov. Andros’ initial “treachery” was not forgotten, though his later humanity to refugees could not have gone unnoticed. Perceived Stuart regime perfidy, along with longstanding grievances against lack of proper local representation (& of a General Assembly, as in other colonies), kept resentments, angers, & the potential for rebellion alive & simmering in Brookhaven Town. Perceived Stuart regime perfidy, along with longstanding grievances against lack of proper local representation (& of a General Assembly, as in other colonies), kept resentments, angers, & the potential for rebellion alive & simmering in Brookhaven Town. As you will see, more was transpiring in Brookhaven and on L.I. during the war years than merely a war scare. Selected Sources: Flintlock and Tomahawk: New England in King Philip’s War, Leach, Douglas Edward. Flintlock and Tomahawk: New England in King Philip’s War, 2 nd ed. Hyannis, MA: Parnassus Imprints, Inc., 1995: 59-60, 92, 94, 177 (Andros sends sloops to R.I., to board refugees, taken to N.Y.C. & Musceta [now Glen] Cove), 188. The Skulking Way of War: Technology and Tactics Among the New England Indians. Malone, Patrick M. The Skulking Way of War: Technology and Tactics Among the New England Indians. Lanham, MD: Madison Books, Inc., Long Island Forum, DeRiggi, Mildred Murphy. “Refuge in King Philip’s War.” Long Island Forum, 44(3) March 1981: See also Documents and other works cited on slides below

5 King Philip’s War & L.I. Indian Fears,

6 King Philip’s War, The Balance of Fear & Reason: Brookhaven-Indyan Relacions Applying the Carrot & Stick to Indian & Colonist Alike, Pt. 1 Interestingly, L.I. Indians were ordered disarmed, in January 1675, well before war broke out in New England (June 1675, though trouble was clearly brewing there), and again in December 1675, when they gathered for a kintecoy (powwow), that John Strong says probably was simply the annual mid-winter festival. Gatherings of Indians were considered suspect in New York, as in New England, during the war, as in the latter, they became frequent vehicles for agents of Philip and his allies to present their case, swaying or dividing entire tribes. By mid-war, Gov. Andros surely knew this, & being thorough, was taking no chances. A deputation from the Governor was ordered to find & break up the gathering, ordering them home, after first demanding the surrender of their arms. Andros forbade L.I. Indians to travel thereafter without an authorized pass, and to remain at home (for war’s duration). The ban on arms was eventually lifted for Indians within the Brookhaven area (but not on eastern L.I.), permitting them fall & winter hunting, This suggests some successful lobbying on the sachems’ part. In the wake of the initial clash at Swansea (western Plymouth Colony), and rapid spread of war to the rest of Southern New England, devastation of village after village, and the initial steady English retreat, waves of terror reverberated, in English settlements bordering the theater of war.

7 King Philip’s War, The Balance of Fear & Reason: Brookhaven-Indyan Relacions Applying the Carrot & Stick to Indian & Colonist Alike, Pt. 2 Brookhaven, esp. Setauket, settler-Indian relations took a sour turn, settlers repeatedly urged or warned to be even-handed in their dealings, and to cool their tempers, by the colonial government. (This also was true further East on L.I.). Local Indians were reined in, denied purchase of liquor, guns, ammunition. Canoes & lumber were rounded up along the North shore, & an armed sloop was ordered to patrol the Sound, to interdict Indian movement, north or south. Gov. Edmund Andros called a meeting with L.I. sachems & was reassured of their good intentions. But, when they called one of their own, his reaction was swift. During the war, claims and counterclaims about the validity of the latest deeds resulted in court battles, & power battles over sachems’ political authority and jurisdictions. The (11/19/1675) land sold by Gie (see below) was one of the deeds challenged (by Tobaccus & Mayhew), as was Richard Woodhull’s right to some meadowlands Philip’s defeat and death (late summer, 1676) sounded the death knell of Indian power in lower New England, & on L.I. The pace of dispossession, ongoing throughout the war, quickened with English triumph, with few apologies or much regard for Indian sensibilities thereafter. Source: Strong, John. “The Impact of King Philip’s War on the Island,” In The Algonquian Peoples of Long Island, From Earliest Times to Interlaken, NY: Empire State Books, 1997:

8 Disarming & Limiting the Movements of Long Island Indians Keeping King Philip’s War from Spreading to the Island, By Order of the Governor, Pt January 24, 1675 “An Order for All Indyans on Long Island to Bee Disarmed, in this Juncture of the Warr, and that None Ramble from Place to Place, etc. “An Order for All Indyans on Long Island to Bee Disarmed, in this Juncture of the Warr, and that None Ramble from Place to Place, etc. WHEREAS I am informed from severa[ll Townes and places] on Long Island of the Generall Apprehensions of [the people con]cerning any our Indyans being Armed at this juncture, for which though I hope there is no Cause, however by the A[dvice of my] Councell, I have Ordered that all Indyans on Long [Island that] have by the favour of the Townes (as allowed) their Ar[mes still] entrusted to them bee forthwith disarmed, and the said A[rmes] according to former Order to bee safely laid up and kept in o{r neare] the Block-House or Fortification in the severall Townes [And] that all Indyans have notice not to ramble of goe from plac[e to] place out of the Bounds they live in without a Certificate from the Magistrate or Constable to be shewed to the like Officers at their arrival where they goe, and have Leave to stay; But all Justice to be shewed them according to Law and Orders of the Court of Assizes and Concerning Fortification. This Order to bee forthwith effectually putt in

9 Disarming & Limiting the Movements of Long Island Indians Keeping King Philip’s War from Spreading to the Island, By Order of the Governor, Pt January 24, 1675 Execution, and a due returne made to mee there of by the severall Townes in whose precincts any Indyans live by th[e] first Opportunity or Expresse, if Occasion: Of which none to faile as they will Answer the default at their utmost perills. Given under my hand in New Yorke the 24 th day of January in the 27 th yeare of his Majesties Reigne, Annoque Domini E: ANDROS, s. To the Justices of the Peace Military Officers, Constables, and Overseers of Southampton; etc. The like sent to all the Townes on Long Island.” Source: Books of General Entries of the Colony of New York, (New York Historical Manuscripts: English), ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., Inc., Pub. Under the Direction of the Holland Society of New York, 1982: p. 103.

10 Of Daniel Lane’s Rape-It-Yourself Setauket Estate Late 17th Century Provincial Welfare February 26, 1675 Of Daniel Lane’s Rape-It-Yourself Setauket Estate Late 17th Century Provincial Welfare Government Relief from Death, Debt, & Penury -- February 26, 1675 Daniel Lane late of Setalcott stood Convicted of the heynous Crimes of a Rape and Adultery adjudged to deserve Death,his Estate, Goods, and Chattels to bee Confiscated unto his Majestie,Governor having taken into Consideration, Daniel Lane by wicked practicesleft Katherine his wife (now Divorced from him ) together with her Children in a very meane and low Conditionas to their Subsistance, And that hee was likewise very much in Debt:it having formerly been adjudged reasonableEstate bee equally dividedone halfe between the Wife and Children, the other to the Creditors; “WHEREAS Daniel Lane late of Setalcott in the East Riding of Yorkshire upon Long Island stood Convicted of the heynous Crimes of a Rape and Adultery [involving a niece], for which hee was adjudged to deserve Death, and his Estate, Goods, and Chattels to bee Confiscated unto his Majestie, the Governor having taken into Consideration, that the said Daniel Lane by wicked practices hath left Katherine his wife (now Divorced from him ) together with her Children in a very meane and low Condition as to their Subsistance, And that hee was likewise very much in Debt: And it having formerly been adjudged reasonable that the Estate of the said Daniel Lane should bee equally divided, the one halfe to bee between the Wife and Children, the other to the Creditors; These are to Certify That his Honor the Governor doth approve and allow of the Division of the Estate of Daniel Land as aforesaid between the Wife and Children and Creditors, That is to say, the one halfe of the whole Estate the said Lane stood Invested in at the time of his first being apprehended for the Crimes aforesaid, to bee to the use of the said Katherine Lane and Children towards their Reliefe and subsistance, The other halfe to the Reall Creditors that had at that time any just Debts due from him, And That the said Katherine Lane on the behalfe of herselfe and Children shall have the Refusall of taking all or any part of the said House… Rich Woodhall…” Source: Books of General Entries of the Colony of New York, (New York Historical Manuscripts: English), ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., Inc., Pub. Under the Direction of the Holland Society of New York, 1982: p. 107.

11 Letter Sent From L.I. Sound, Off Saybrook, CT Gov. Edmund Andros to Gov. John Winthrop, Jr. July 8, 1675 “Honorable Gent. I write y[ou] at [lar]ge the 28 th past by Mr. John Collyer, and a[lso] by another the 4 th instant in the morning, by returne of your Express[e] upon your notice of the Indyans Rebellion, and barbarisme, did give you account of my Intent this way and to this place, where I am now arrived, but finding no occasion here upon the Indyan account, I am sending a small vessell further eastward for Intelligence, and do send this by Expresse to you in his Majesties and R. Hs behalfe, to desire your direct and effectuall Answer to my foresaid Lettre which here attend, on discharge of my duty accordingly; In the meane time remaine Honorable Gent. Your affectionate friend and humble servant E. Andros” Source: Books of General Entries of the Colony of New York, (New York Historical Manuscripts: English), ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., Inc., Pub. Under the Direction of the Holland Society of New York, 1982: p. 107.

12 By Sloop, Pinnace, & Foot A Calming Letter from Gov. Andros to Southampton & Seatalcott, Pt September 18, 1675 sorryto heare that you have been so Alarfalse Re]port of our Indyans ill intent against [us], which I endeavor’d, and hope is now Rectifyed, and a[ll Partyes well sa]tisfied, and quiet; Some Officers from all the Townes on] this side Seatalcott, and all the Sachems [of Long] Island, and Neighbourhood on the Maine, [havin]g been here with mee since I Ordered and sett out a Sloop[e] Armed, to Cruse in the Soundnext morning, went myself in my Pinnace, as farre as Mr. Pells, to the Indyans therefrom thence to Flushing, and home by Land, the better to Settle Peoples mindesProclamacion “[I received yours of] the 13 th instant, [so long a coming (as the Indyan saith)] by reason of wett [weather; I arrived here on the 9 th in]stant, late, and am sorry [to heare that you (as well as the most] Part of the Island) have been so Alar[med upon a false Re]port of our Indyans ill intent against [us], which I endeavor’d, and hope is now Rectifyed, and a[ll Partyes well sa]tisfied, and quiet; Some Officers from all the Townes on] this side Seatalcott, and all the Sachems [of Long] Island, and Neighbourhood on the Maine, [havin]g been here with mee since; And although I did [hope] you would not have been Alarum’d, yet I writ to you on the 11 th, which I hope came well to your hands; and sat[is]fide you; The same night, I Ordered and sett out a Sloop[e] Armed, to Cruse in the Sound; and the next morning, went myself in my Pinnace, as farre as Mr. Pells, to the Indyans there, and from thence to Flushing, and home by Land, the better to Settle Peoples mindes; I now send you a Copy of a Proclamacion,

13 Constant Vigilance! & the “Indian Expresse” A Calming Letter from Gov. Andros to Southampton & Seatalcott, Pt. 2: September 18, 1675 relating to the said Matt[ers] that it may bee forthwith put in Execution and also to communicate this, not having time to write to them, and unwill[ing] to stay your expresse Indyan I do not apprehend a[ny] danger by the Indyans, yet there shall continue an armed Sloope to ply in the Sound, that so, no ill Indyans, may have opportunityes to Crosse it, at their pleasure And if there should happen any occasion, more sl[oopes] shall be forthwith sent out, as the matter may require, bee vigilant relating to the said Matt[ers] that it may bee forthwith put in Execution, both by yo[u, and t]he Naighbouring Townes of Southold and Easthampton to whom you are to send Copyes attested, and also to communicate this, not having time to write to them, and unwill[ing] to stay your expresse Indyan; Though I do not apprehend a[ny] danger by the Indyans, yet there shall continue an armed Sloope to ply in the Sound, that so, no ill Indyans, may have opportunityes to Crosse it, at their pleasure, which Sloope is intended to call at Southold and Easthampton, sometime in the [next] weeke; And if there should happen any occasion, more sl[oopes] shall be forthwith sent out, as the matter may require, so that I hope, none will have cause to neglect their Lawfull occ[a]sions; recommending you bee vigilant, and that I may heare from you, upon all occasions requiring it, I remaine

14 Invisible Indian Gun Lobby A Calming Letter from Gov. Andros to Southampton & Seatalcott, Pt September 18, 1675 Your very Loving Friend, E. Andros s. New Yorke, the 18 th 1675.” Postscript It being Resolved, That the Indyans of the North and West Ridings of Long Island, shall by reason of their good comport, and the Season of the yeare, have their Gunns restored to them, you have likewise Liberty to do the same in your Parte, (unlesse you know of any of your Indyans not fitt to bee trusted therewith, Excepting Easthampton and Shelter Island, who having paid Contribucion, to the Narrawgansett Indians are n[ot to have them, for the present.] [To Mr. John] Topping, Justice [of] the Peace, and Capt. John Howell These at East Hampton” Source: Books of General Entries of the Colony of New York, (New York Historical Manuscripts: English), ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., Inc., Pub. Under the Direction of the Holland Society of New York, 1982: p

15 Gov. Andros’ Letter to Justice Richard Woodhull, Setauket Good Indian, Bad Indian -- Letter by Indian Expresse -- September 18, 1675 “Sir. I received yours of the 16 th the last Night, and a[m very well] satisfyed of your Care and Justice, in relac[ion to the Indyans] who I finde, have not misbehaved themselv[es not with]standing the great Noise, Jealousies and apprehen[sons] of them, so that the Cause and Instruments thereo[f] ought to bee severely Punisht; However, the Indyan[s to] the Eastward, being still strong and Active, I have issued forth the Proclamation herewith sent, the bett[er to] satisfy all Peoples mindes, Particularly the Christ[ians] and to keepe a Sloope Armed in the Sound, that [ill] Indyans may easily Crosse it, and shall bee ready to send [more] upon any occasion requiring it; I would advise yo[u to be] vigilant, though as yet no cause of fear, but to con[tinue], in being Just and Protecting your Indians upon all [occa]cions, Had you named those of your Towne, who you see[me] to imply to bee troublesome, or exceed their bounds towa[rds] the Indians, I would have taken such present Order in[?] as had been fitting, But you having sufficient Power [as] a Justice, I do not doubt, but you will make use of it, as there is occasion, and you see Cause; I sent for Capt. Bayly, and the Officers of more of the other Townes, [as wel[l] as Sachems of Long Island and Neighborhood, upon the Maine) have been with mee since my returne, and all sa[tis]fyed and well; I am Your Very Loving FriendE. Andros. S.” Source: Books of General Entries of the Colony of New York, (New York Historical Manuscripts: English), ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., Inc., Pub. Under the Direction of the Holland Society of New York, 1982: p..

16 Gov. Andros’ Order to Fort Seatalcott Clear Your Fields of Fire ! Gov. Andros’ Order to Fort Seatalcott Clear Your Fields of Fire ! (Fort & Garrison Houses) -- October 22, 1675 “Whereas I am informed that neare the Fort newly built at Seatalcott, there is a parcell of Brush wood, both in the Common and the Lotts of private persons, which upon occasion [Indian attack] may prove very inconvenient These are in his majesties name strictly to enjoyne and require the Inhabitants of said Towne that forthwith they all joyne in cutting down and bringing the brush in the Commons within 80-perches [i.e., 16.5 ft.] of the said Fort, and that the persons who have particular Lotts doe the like in their said Lotts to that distance, and for soe doeing this shall be their warrant, Given under my hand in N.Y. this 22th day of Oct To the Justice of Peace, Const. And Overseers of Sealalcott” Source: The Andros Papers, : Files of the Provincial Secretary of New York During the Administration of Governor Sir Edmund Andros, , ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1989: 222. Queries for Historians & Archeologists: Note that an X was drawn across this letter. It may never have been dispatched. Does historical evidence indicate that a fort ever was built, or that construction had begun? Do we know the exact site, and has it ever been excavated? Were the British simply building on, or expanding its remains just over a century later?

17 Indian Reconfirmation of Deeds & Expansion of Grants Some Thoughts on Motivations & Validation – 11/1675 On November 19, 1675 five Sachems (Gie, et al.) of the Indians of the Setauket area reconfirmed all prior deeds within the bounds of the newly- patented Brookhaven Town, & conveyed all previously unsold land, between the North shore to mid-Island, between Stony Brook and Wading River, within Town bounds. The validity of the document soon went to court. On November 19, 1675 five Sachems (Gie, et al.) of the Indians of the Setauket area reconfirmed all prior deeds within the bounds of the newly- patented Brookhaven Town, & conveyed all previously unsold land, between the North shore to mid-Island, between Stony Brook and Wading River, within Town bounds. The validity of the document soon went to court. With shifting colonial & Indian fortunes & power structures in New England, it may have seemed to some a good time to test the political power balance(s) on L.I. With shifting colonial & Indian fortunes & power structures in New England, it may have seemed to some a good time to test the political power balance(s) on L.I. It also seemed a good time for Brookhaven settlers to test the Island Indians’ loyalty (a feature of the war to the North), use it to strike a better land deal, & assert and consolidate control of the entire area of the Town. L.I. Indians, disarmed, isolated, surrounded, & astute, could probably see the writing on the wall, for themselves, if not for New England. L.I. Indians, disarmed, isolated, surrounded, & astute, could probably see the writing on the wall, for themselves, if not for New England. Brookhaven Town RecordsFlintlock & Tomahawk: New England in King Philip’s War.New England Frontier: Puritans and Indians, Sources: Brookhaven Town Records & Leach, Douglas Edward. Flintlock & Tomahawk: New England in King Philip’s War. New York: Macmillan, Vaughan, Alden T. New England Frontier: Puritans and Indians, , 3 rd ed. Norman, IL: Univ. of OK Press, 1995.

18 John Roe doth doe Cartwheels with Peter Whitehaire 2 desem 1675 – Early Teamsters? Note: Whitehaire appears in other sources as Whittier “These presents testifieth that whereas John Roe haueing [????] wheeles he doth bargen and agre to lett these [???] wheeles to be for the vse of peter whiethere [???] to goe partners with the said John Roe for other [???] (vses) vpon consideration that the said peter [??] doth ingage to provide a cart and wheles [??] these be don and John Roe is to procure a paire [??] hoopes for the saide wheeles and that cart and wheeles to goe between them and thare haires.” “These presents testifieth that whereas John Roe haueing [????] wheeles he doth bargen and agre to lett these [???] wheeles to be for the vse of peter whiethere [???] to goe partners with the said John Roe for other [???] (vses) vpon consideration that the said peter [??] doth ingage to provide a cart and wheles [??] these be don and John Roe is to procure a paire [??] hoopes for the saide wheeles and that cart and wheeles to goe between them and thare haires.” Source: Brookhaven Town Records, v. 1: New York: Tobias A. Wright, Printer & Publisher, 1924: p. 20. Note: The enterprising John Roe founded the Drowned Meadow settlement, today’s Port Jefferson.

19 Kintecoy Scare: Another Indian Panic & Disarmament Order Kintecoy Scare: Another Indian Panic & Disarmament Order Those “Purely Peaceful “ Relations in Doubt Again, Pt. 1 A Confrontation Ordered -- December 13, 1675 “ A Speciall Warrant sent to Huntington to demand the Indyan Armes of Rock a way and Sequatalke who are to Kintecoy there “ A Speciall Warrant sent to Huntington to demand the Indyan Armes of Rock a way and Sequatalke [Secatogue], who are to Kintecoy there the severallIndyans at [Rockway Unche]chauge and Parts adjacent are in a few dayes to [have a great Ki]ntecoy at Seaquetalke;being unusuall at [this time a] yeareTherefore (by the advice of my Councell) you are in his [Majestie]s name hereby required, upon notice of the time or day [the sai]d Indyans Kintecoy is to bee, with six or more [men, not e]xceeding ten (as you shall judge fitt, to bring home th[eir] Armes) to repaire to Seaquatalke, or place where the abov[e] Kintecoy shall bee, to informe yourselfe of what Indyans are there, and demand their Armes; which having received to warne and Command them to separate, each to repaire to their proper place of abode, for the future to forebear appointing or coming to any such publique Meetings, or Kintecoys, without Special[l] Leave, bring away with you all their said Armes, which y[ou] are safely to lay up in your Towne, till further Order. WHEREAS I am informed, that the severall Indyans at [Rockway Unche]chauge and Parts adjacent are in a few dayes to [have a great Ki]ntecoy at Seaquetalke; which being unusuall at [this time a] yeare, is this juncture in no case to bee neglec[ed]; And] Therefore (by the advice of my Councell) you are in his [Majestie]s name hereby required, upon notice of the time or day [the sai]d Indyans Kintecoy is to bee, with six or more [men, not e]xceeding ten (as you shall judge fitt, to bring home th[eir] Armes) to repaire to Seaquatalke, or place where the abov[e] Kintecoy shall bee, sending two Men a little before, to give them notice of your coming (that they bee not scared at your arivall) to informe yourselfe of what Indyans are there, and demand their Armes; which having received to warne and Command them to separate, and each to repaire to their proper place of abode, and for the future to forebear appointing or coming to any such publique Meetings, or Kintecoys, without Special[l] Leave, and to bring away with you all their said Armes, which y[ou] are safely to lay up in your Towne, till further Order.

20 Kintecoy Scare: Another Indian Panic & Disarmament Order Kintecoy Scare: Another Indian Panic & Disarmament Order Those “Purely Peaceful “ Relations in Doubt Again, Pt. 2 A Confrontation Ordered -- December 13, 1675 But in Case the above Indyans should happen to bee refractory, and refuse to deliver their Armes, you are to warne and Command all their Sagamacks, without delay, to repaire to mee at this place, and all other Indyans home, and so leave them. At your returne you are immedia[tely] to give mee a particular Account of your Proceedings And for so doing, this shall bee to you, Sufficient Warrant Given But in Case the above Indyans should happen to bee refractory, and refuse to deliver their Armes, you are (having taken the best Account or notice you can from whence they are, their Number, etc.) to warne and Command all their Sagamacks, without delay, to repaire to mee at this place, and all other Indyans home, and so leave them. At your returne you are immedia[tely] to give mee a particular Account of your Proceedings, accordi[ng] to the above; of which you are not to faile, as you will Answer the contrary at your Perills: And for so doing, this shall bee to you, and every of you, a Sufficient Warrant Given under my hand and Seale, un New Yorke, this 1[3th] day or December, To the Constable or Chiefe [Ove]rseer of Huntington E ANDROS, s.” E ANDROS, s.” Note:While addressed to Huntington, Indians attracted to the kintecoy (powwow) seem to include some from the Brookhaven Town area. Note: While addressed to Huntington, Indians attracted to the kintecoy (powwow) seem to include some from the Brookhaven Town area. Books of General Entries of the Colony of New York, Source: Books of General Entries of the Colony of New York, (New York Historical Manuscripts: English), ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., Inc., Pub. Under the Direction of the Holland Society of New York, 1982: p. 113.

21 Hospitality to Refugees & an Accounting of their Arms Ordered January 16, 1676/7 “[An Order to the Magistrates and Officers of the severall Townes on Long Island, to permit distressed People, to settle amongst them.] Whereas I am informed, that se[verall Familyes from the] Eastward, being destitute intend to come [to Settle, at] the East End of Long Island; You are h[ereby desired and] required, to receive all such kindly, and to acc[ommodate them] without delay, with some suitable proportion [of Land,] where vacant, and particularly to Fishermen nea[re the] Seaside, and that they bring their goods, all Fishin[g Craft] and Salt, to bee Landed by any Vessell, or Vessell they [can] procure (being free of all Dutyes) without coming to [enter] the same here, but with the Office of the place, [who is re]quired to give them present dispatch accordingly; As also to suffer the Landing of Armes or Ammunition, [as] here; Giving first the Magistrate or chiefe Officer of the place, an Account of said Armes; And to give them all further fitt encouragement and Assistance, as occasion. Actum in New Yorke, this 16 th day of January, 1676/7. To the Magistrates and Officers, of the Severall Townes of Yorkshire, on Long Island. To the Magistrates and Officers, of the Severall Townes of Yorkshire, on Long Island.E. Andros s.” Source: Books of General Entries of the Colony of New York, (New York Historical Manuscripts: English), ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., Inc., Pub. Under the Direction of the Holland Society of New York, 1982: p. 114.

22 “Mischiefe hath hapned”, Pt. 1: April 27, 1676 Trouble to the East: 17 th Century Peacekeeping “Mischiefe hath hapned”, Pt. 1: April 27, 1676 Trouble to the East: 17 th Century Peacekeeping Instructions to Captains Anthony Brockholes & John Coliers “[Wher]eas I have even now received notice from Hun[tington,] on Long Island of a Report of a Quarrell between [two Chris]tians of South[hamp]ton, and about the like number of [Indy]ans, on the South Beach, Whereby mischiefe hath hapnd you are forthwith to hasten to Long Island, and so forward as farre as said Huntington, and Setalcott, and (if you se[e] ca[u]se) to South[hamp]ton; And in your way thither, to give strict Ord[ers] in the severall Townes, that none presume to make any distu[r]bance there upon, that so due Justice bee administered on the guilty, as it ought. You are also to give notice to all our Indyans on said Island, that they are and (continuing their duty) shall bee constant Protected as heretofore. You are also to give Orders to all Townes and places on said Island That they bee Carefull to conforme themselves there unto accordingly, as they’l answer the contrary, at their utmost Perills. If you shall happen to finde any cause of General disturbance, you are then to Order and see that the severall Townes and places stand carefully on their Guards, but not proceed furthe[r] but give mee immeadiate particular notice, and so from tim[e] to time, for Orders. You are also in you[r] going to, and stay[ing] in any place, to give mee an Account of anything you shall judge necessary, and to advance, stay, or returne, as you shall think fitt and proper, for the King[’s] Service, and good of the Countrey, according to the above;

23 “Mischiefe hath hapned”, Pt.2: April 27, 1676 Trouble to the East: 17 th Century Peacekeeping “Mischiefe hath hapned”, Pt.2: April 27, 1676 Trouble to the East: 17 th Century Peacekeeping Instructions to Captains Anthony Brockholes & John Coliers Given under my hand in New Yorke, this 27 th day of Aprill, To Capt. Anthony Brockholes, first Lieutenant of this place, and of the Councell. E. Andros. s.” Source: Books of General Entries of the Colony of New York, (New York Historical Manuscripts: English), ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., Inc., Pub. Under the Direction of the Holland Society of New York, 1982: p Note the supremacy of the Province over Town and village, in Indian diplomacy was being asserted. Anthony Brockholes later led an expedition to seize Pemiquid, Maine, in 1677, became commander of Ft. James and conducted diplomatic correspondence with New Jersey and key correspondence within the province, for Gov. Andros. As it had been a perceived judicial injustice (in the Sassamon murder case) that had launched King Philip’s War, Andros was trying to guard against any local repeat.

24 Gov. Andros & Unkechaug Discuss Fishing Rights Gov. Andros & Unkechaug Discuss Fishing Rights May 23, 1676 “At a meeting of the Unchechaug Indyans of Long Island – before the Go[vernor]: at the Fort [James, Manhattan]. “At a meeting of the Unchechaug Indyans of Long Island – before the Go[vernor]: at the Fort [James, Manhattan]. They give thankes for their peace, and that they may live, eate and sleepe quiet, without feare on the Island, They give some white string seawant [I.e., wampum]. They give thankes for their peace, and that they may live, eate and sleepe quiet, without feare on the Island, They give some white string seawant [I.e., wampum]. They desire they being free borne on the said Island, that they may have leave to have a whale boate with all other materielles to fish and dispose of what they shall take, as and to whom they like best. They desire they being free borne on the said Island, that they may have leave to have a whale boate with all other materielles to fish and dispose of what they shall take, as and to whom they like best. They complaine that fish being driven upon their beach, etc. the English have come and taken them away from them per force. They complaine that fish being driven upon their beach, etc. the English have come and taken them away from them per force. The Go[vernor]: Demands if they made complainte of it to the Magistrates in the Townes, who are apppointed to redresse any Injuries. The Go[vernor]: Demands if they made complainte of it to the Magistrates in the Townes, who are apppointed to redresse any Injuries. They say no, but another time will doe it. They say no, but another time will doe it. The Go[vernor]: will consider of it and give them Answer tomorrow.” The Go[vernor]: will consider of it and give them Answer tomorrow.” Source: Source: The Andros Papers, : Files of the Provincial Secretary of New York During the Administration of Governor Sir Edmund Andros, , ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1989: 373.

25 Gov. Andros & Unkechaug Discuss Fishing Rights Gov. Andros & Unkechaug Discuss Fishing Rights May 24, 1676 “The Indyans come againe to the Governor in presence of the Councell. “The Indyans come againe to the Governor in presence of the Councell. What they desire is granted them as to their free liberty of fishing, if they bee not engaged to others; They say they are not engaged. They are to have an Order to shew for their priviledge. What they desire is granted them as to their free liberty of fishing, if they bee not engaged to others; They say they are not engaged. They are to have an Order to shew for their priviledge. [Endorsed:] [Endorsed:] May May Unchechaug Indyans” Unchechaug Indyans” The Andros Papers, : Files of the Provincial Secretary of New York During the Administration of Governor Sir Edmund Andros, , Source: The Andros Papers, : Files of the Provincial Secretary of New York During the Administration of Governor Sir Edmund Andros, , ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1989:

26 Free Trade & Unchechaug Rights! Free Trade & Unchechaug Rights! Gov. Andros’ Order in Council Granting Fishing & Whaling Rights to the Unkechaug May 24, 1676 “At a Councell held in N.Y. the 24 th day off May Ind[yan]s ofUnchechaug Upon the request of the Ind[yan]s of Unchechaug upon Long Island are at liberty andmay freely whale or fish for or with Christians or by themselves and dispose of their effects as they thinke good according to the Custome of the Government without any manner of lett hindrance or molestacion they comporting themselves civilly and as they ought. Resolved and ordered that they are at liberty and may freely whale or fish for or with Christians or by themselves and dispose of their effects as they thinke good according to the Custome of the Government of f which all Magistrates offciers or others whom these may concerne are to take notice and suffer the said Indyans so to doe without any manner of lett hindrance or molestacion they comporting themselves civilly and as they ought. By Order of the Go: in Councell [Endorsed] Order of Councell may Unchechauge Indians” The Andros Papers, : Files of the Provincial Secretary of New York During the Administration of Governor Sir Edmund Andros, , Source: The Andros Papers, : Files of the Provincial Secretary of New York During the Administration of Governor Sir Edmund Andros, , ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1989: p. 374.

27 Petition of John Tucker, Jr., of Setauket Modern Medicine in the Making, 1676, Part 1 A Shooting Incident, A Claim of Medical Incompetence by a Dead Man,& a Plea for Compensation “To the Right Honorable Major Edmond Andross Leitenant and Governer Generall of all his Royall Highness Territories in America and to the Honearable Bench assembled att this Court of Assize, etc. The Humble Petition of John Tucker Junior of Seatalcoott Alius Brokehaven upon Long Island: Sheweth unto Your honor and his Honorable Courte that whereas about the firste of November 1675 one Samull: Seyward of the same with a Gunn(Vizt) a fowling Piece att the day and place aforesaide being then Charged Loden and Prymed did fire in and upon you[r] Peticioner and with the same did suite [I.e., shoot] him through the Right thygh with three Bulletts by which his life was not onely in greate danger but alsoe Cost your Petitioner for the Chirurgeons and feese thirty three Poundes besides the Charges of your Peticioner lying from the time aforesaid till March

28 Petition of John Tucker, Jr., of Setauket Modern Medicine in the Making, 1676, Part 2 A Shooting Incident, A Claim of Medical Incompetence by a Dead Man,& a Plea for Compensation following (all which was Occationed by the neglect of one Thomas Baseley deceased who Carelessly left the said Gunn Loaden) Therefore humbly prayes your honor and this honorable Courte that the said Samuell Seyward or Thomas Baseley may by the order of this honorable Courte not Onely pay into your Peticioner his Costes and Charges aforesaid butt alsoe allow him the Dammage hee sustayned by Reason of the said wounding and loss of time thereby and hee as in Duty bound Shall Ever Pray….” Source: The Andros Papers, : Files of the Provincial Secretary of New York During the Administration of Governor Sir Edmund Andros, , ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1989: 335.

29 John Scott, of Setauket, Rogue Extraordinaire, ca John Scott, of Setauket, Rogue Extraordinaire, ca New Schemes & New Troubles Scott ingratiated himself with one Dorothea Scott Gotherson, a wealthy L.I. widow, whom he convinced was his relative, conning her into investing heavily in him, then running with the money (to England). While there, this time, persuaded some of the British upper nobility to invest in a L.I. get-rich-quick real estate scheme, & again ran with the loot. During his life, Scott spent time in & escaping various jails in England, New Netherlands, & New England, selling the unsuspecting on one confidence scheme after another, until he ran afoul, once too often, of the Duke of York (later King James II) and his trusted officer, and famed diarist, Admiralty Undersecretary Samuel Pepys. 1677, In 1677, in London, Scott fell in with Titus Oates, as a witness against Pepys & Sir Anthony Deane, for their supposed treason, in selling Admiralty secrets to France, impugning Pepys’ patron, the Duke of York -- until Scott’s character was successfully questioned in court (some say by equally questionable witnesses), and the tables were turned.

30 Finding the Middle Way: Via Media, August 13, 1677 Origin of Middle Country Road – by Indian or Others’ Labor “An Order to Mr. Richar[d] Woodhull, concerning a ne[w way ] on Long Island Mr. Justice Woodhull, you are hereby desired, and in his Majesties n[ame] authorized and required to take present Order, that the new way de[signed] and order’d in Governor Nicholls time, through the midle of the [Island], from Huntington Eastward to Southampton and Southold, bee [nott] only remaked, butt sufficiently cleared of brush where occas[ion,] by employing therein Indians or others; Also that you give notice to Mr. Smith of Nesaquake to mend the ill way as att Nessaquake [I.e., Nissequogue] River, and to any others for rivers, Creekes, or the like [within] their bounds, and that hee settle a farm neare said Nesaquack riv[er, and ] your towne one att or aboutt Moncorum[I.e., Coram], and Southampton, or [in] whose bounds itt is, att Paconick river, and thatt you make a repo[rt] as soon as may bee of your proceedings for the Completely making [said] designed way good, and convenient for travellers, from said Eastern parts Southampton and Southold as above: Actum in New [Yorke] this 13 th day of August To Mr. Richd. Woodhull one of the Justices of the Peace of the East Riding att Seatalcott. E. Andros” Source: Books of General Entries of the Colony of New York, (New York Historical Manuscripts: English), ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., Inc., Pub. Under the Direction of the Holland Society of New York, 1982: pp

31 Slavery: A Sale, with Payment Due in Whale Oil, December 18, 1677 “These presents testifieth that Isack Rainer, of Southampton, in the est Rieding of yourkshere, upon long Island, for valluable causses and considerations him moveing, have given, granted and sould a negro man, named Samboe, that the said Isack, had of his father, Rainer, unto John Thomas, of Setakett, elles brookhaven, in the above said shere and Rieding, I say that I, Iseck Rainer, have, for himselfe, his haires, exseckators or assigns, fully and absollutely bargened and sould the above saide negroe to the above sayed John Thomas, his haires, exseckaters or saigns, to have and to hould for ever, and the said Iseck Rainer doth ingage to bring him safe and sound, winde and limb, and deliver him or cause to be delivered unto the above saide John Thomas, at Setakett. And in consideration of the above sayed premesses, the above saide John Thomas doth ingage to pay or cause to be paiede, unto the above saide Iseck Rainer, or his order, nienteen barells of good marchantable whale oyle, in good thiete casks, to be delivered aboute unkachauk, upon the beach, or estward of the triing places, or other wayes to be paid in comodities, oyle at forty shillens pr. Barell, the full of some therty aight pounds, at Setaket, by Mr. Richard mann, if the saide Iseck Rayner se cause to take comoditis, or other was to be paide in oyle as above stated.” “These presents testifieth that Isack Rainer, of Southampton, in the est Rieding of yourkshere, upon long Island, for valluable causses and considerations him moveing, have given, granted and sould a negro man, named Samboe, that the said Isack, had of his father, Rainer, unto John Thomas, of Setakett, elles brookhaven, in the above said shere and Rieding, I say that I, Iseck Rainer, have, for himselfe, his haires, exseckators or assigns, fully and absollutely bargened and sould the above saide negroe to the above sayed John Thomas, his haires, exseckaters or saigns, to have and to hould for ever, and the said Iseck Rainer doth ingage to bring him safe and sound, winde and limb, and deliver him or cause to be delivered unto the above saide John Thomas, at Setakett. And in consideration of the above sayed premesses, the above saide John Thomas doth ingage to pay or cause to be paiede, unto the above saide Iseck Rainer, or his order, nienteen barells of good marchantable whale oyle, in good thiete casks, to be delivered aboute unkachauk, upon the beach, or estward of the triing places, or other wayes to be paid in comodities, oyle at forty shillens pr. Barell, the full of some therty aight pounds, at Setaket, by Mr. Richard mann, if the saide Iseck Rayner se cause to take comoditis, or other was to be paide in oyle as above stated.” Source:Records. Town of Brookhaven, Up to Source: Records. Town of Brookhaven, Up to Patchogue, NY: The Town, 1880: pp

32 A Shorte Acc[oun]t of New Yorks assistance to New England The Official New-York Version of Events, 1677, Pt. 1 Invasions, Fidelity, New England Perfidy, 1675 “Upon newes of Indian troubles in June 1675 the Governor without delay advised & resolued sending or goeing to o[u]r neighbours of w[hi]ch gave presently notice to Hartford of Intent & to goe to Connecticutt Riuer & the same day shipt spare ammunicôn & armes wch they wanted & next morneing himselfe with some Volunteers & souldiers sailed to sd River accordingly, where he did imediately tender, lending both powder & armes to be repayed in kind when the occasions was ouer & they could be supplyed, & alsoe sent some to New London next towne to ye Indians desireing to be further informed of sd troubles & assureing his readynesse to act as fitt for him to his power, but sd proffers wholly rejected though ammunicôn & armes very much wanted, & a severe protest made agt him as if an Invader of their Country, upon which he Immediately went ouer to ye East End of Long Island & supplyed it & all o[u]r out Islands giueing necessary Ordrs for Our defence upon all occasions euery where & to all Indians around us, who then apply’d with all submission & gaue all obseruance of ffidelity well obserued dureing the whole warr but howeuer wee kept good continued guards by land &

33 A Shorte Acc[oun]t of New Yorks assistance to New England The Official New-York Version of Events, 1677, Pt. 2 Powder, Ammo, & 2 Critical Defeats for Philip with N-Y Help water In Autumne the Indian warr Increaseing Eastward & Comeing more westerly, the governor prohibited the saile of powder to Indians on severe penaltyes extending to life (except to Maques of wch well assured & upon notice of want sent (masked) six barrells of powder to roade [I.e., Rhode] Island wch they accepted & after therewith supplyed New England fforces in want att Narragansett fight [probably the Great Swamp Fight, a major colonial victory]. 1675/6 In winter 1675/6 Phillip & other Indians in two partyes armed, his ab[ou]t 500, the other 400 men, tending westward within forty miles of Albany, Connecticutt & Boston refuseing assistance or [permission for N.Y. troops’] persueinge them into their Collonys wee howeuer supplyed o[u]r Indyans with ammunicôn, armes & all they wanted: & recêd old Maques Sachems, women & children into o[u]r townes & though refused by o[u]r neighbours the latter end of ffebruary fell upon killed & tooke severall & drove sd Phillip & other Indians with him quite away [in the direction of New England], & since kept continuall partyes out to free the coasts towards us & prevent old Indyans recourse to Canada.

34 A Shorte Acc[oun]t of New Yorks assistance to New England The Official New-York Version of Events, 1677, Pt. 3 New England in Defeat, N-Y to the Rescue, In Summer 1676 ye Indians prevailing much Eastward & towards Connecticutt, they sent thereupon two Comissioners to New Yorke, pretending Authority but hauing none, ye Gouernor returned answer of readynesse if they pleased to procure them an hon[ora]ble and safe peace with Indians, or use force as occasion [demanded], & to remoue all Jealousies would forbeare all claymes to that parte of the Colony they possesse in his Royall Highnesses Pattants but had noe answer. Upon news of great devastacôn eastward of Boston ye latter end of ye yeare 1676 the Governor sent to releife & offer retreate to ye Inhabitants fled to Piscataway & Boston but they were detained In June 1677 black point being repossessed by Massachusetts but all ye country else eastward & Islands distroyed & possessed by Indians the Governmt sent from New-Yorke of wch notice to all o[u]r neighbors, a force of about 100 men very well victualled in foure vessells furnished with smalle gunns & all stores of warr & framed Redoute to take Possîon of Pemaquid [in Maine] &c by fortifieing the most convenient place they could & not to admitt peace with Indians but upon their full submission and deliuering up all Xtian [I.e., Christian] prisoners of Captiues & vessels & Includeing all his Maties subjects particulerly the

35 A Shorte Acc[oun]t of New Yorks assistance to New England The Official New-York Version of Events, 1677, Pt. 4 Victory at Pemaquid: New-York Restores the Peace, 1677 Massachusetts admission to Peace, & all Captiues of wch 35 by name & vessels att hand were presently delivered, att sending to acquaint the Massachusetts of the designe they proclaimed a fast & day of prayer, leuyed [levied] or pressed about 120 men wch they alsoe sent East ward of wch ½ being killed by Indians att black point the rest proceeded to ors att Pemaquid but finding them already posted they friendly questioned our comeing there & soe returned afore the Indians applicacôns [for peace], wch comeing some dayes after & conclusion as afore, and Expresse was sent to acquaint Massachusetts therewith, & they accepted sd peace wch still continues & is all the peace (knowne) they haue with Indyans.” Source: Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York, v. 3, by John Romeyn Brodhead. Albany, NY: Weed, Parsons and Company, Printers, 1853: pp Ed. Notes: Of course, New Englanders did take issue with many of the contentions and omissions in this account, even then. War in Northern New England continued for some time after the main events to the south had run their course. The Abnaki were the main contenders in Maine, not Philip’s Wampanoags. Mass. Bay & New-York both claimed Maine.

36 An 8-Month Indentured Servitude, February 16, 1679 “This biendeth me Siemon halifax now Sougerne(e) of brook haven to Sarue [i.e., serve] and work truly and faithfully for John Tooker Senyer of the aboue Sayd towne the full term of aight months in what the Saide tooker shall sett me aboute beginning my tieme the tenth day of march next ensueing an(d) leueing [i.e., leaving] when the aight monthes is expired and what dayes I the Saide hallefaxshall be wanting in [in] any extwordnery occasion I am to make it vp at the end of my (t)erm not that I am to ab(s)ent my selue but vopn caSes of nessessitie And in concideration to the Same Iohn Took(er) Senyer doth in gage to pay or cause to be paid vnto th(e) aboue Sai(d)e Simon hallefax the Iu(s)t Som of twenty fiue shillens Par month for every month as aboue Said in good marchentable pay and fower shillens over a(nd) aboue that the Said Tooker Sette of with the (a)boue Sayd hallefax which he owed him a(n)d to the true parformens of th(e) Same we both of vs Interchangeable Sett our hands this 16 day of febrery Wittnes Roger Satterly [Signed]marke [Signed] Simon 2 hal(efax) his Iohn Tooker Source: Brookhaven (NY : Town). Records of the Town of Brookhaven, Book B: , [comp. by] John E. Glover, Town Clerk. New York: Derrydale Press, 1932: p. 501.

37 Shifts of Allegiances & Governance, 1680 A Residual Island of Connecticut in Southern Brookhaven March 29, 1680,Maj. Fitz-John Winthrop effectively relinquished Connecticut sovereignty over what would in time become southern Brookhaven Town. On March 29, 1680, Maj. Fitz-John Winthrop (portrait to right, the victor of the Battle of Southold) having inherited his father’s inter-colonial land dispute, seeking to clear the legal title to his Brookhaven inheritance with New-York Colony (i.e., Governor Edmund Andros & his Council), effectively relinquished Connecticut sovereignty over what would in time become southern Brookhaven Town. Sir Edmund Andros, Governor of New-York Colony At Right: Sir Edmund Andros, Governor of New-York Colony 1680 “Winthrop Patent” part of New-York Colonyin effect, a self- governing manor The resultant 1680 “Winthrop Patent”as it became known, which was thereafter part of New-York Colony, became in effect, a self- governing manor. Maj. Fitz-John Winthrop, like his father, also became governor of Connecticut Colony, so at least in this area of L.I., old Puritan ties were tenuously, but tenaciously maintained 1773, Winthrop Patentformally incorporated into and administered by Brookhaven Town. Not until 1773, and then only by a by special act of New-York colonial legislature, was the Winthrop Patent formally incorporated into and administered by Brookhaven Town. New Amsterdam New Amsterdam, was subjected to greater direct rule, than Yorkshire, approximating rule under the prior regime, but with insistent substitution of English office names, forms, chief officers, & ways of doing things; yet Dutch administrative participation, at lower levels, was encouraged. Upper Hudson & Delaware Valley Upper Hudson & Delaware Valley territories were placed under more military forms of governance, with Dutch participation encouraged

38 John Scott, of Setauket, Rogue Extraordinaire Finale, , & a Sobering What If? John Scott, of Setauket, Rogue Extraordinaire Finale, , & a Sobering What If? New Schemes Foiled & a Mysterious Disappearance Scott’s attainments reputedly included theft of jewelry, of a regimental cash box, of 6000 florins from Holland (earning him hanging in effigy), piracy &/or privateering, kidnapping, and in 1681 murder of a coachman (after which he wisely fled England), until, thinking it safe again, he reappeared, in disguise, in 1696, was promptly reported to Pepys, who was still smarting for some reason over his imprisonment in the Tower of London & treason trial. Scott then simply disappears from history, or has help, & is heard of no more. It is interesting to speculate that had Scott’s 1664 Long Island Colony scheme succeeded, against very long odds, and had he garnered royal approval for it – which is doubtful, at best, given its timing & “democratic” inspiration – that there might now be a Long Island State, possibly with Setauket as state capital, situated in Brookhaven Town. Of course with John Scott as role model for things like the methods of local governance, business & real estate transactions, there’s no saying how badly reputations in the Town, in these fields, might have been tarnished, by association, in posterity.

39 : The Duke’s Agents Lay Down the Law, Pt. 1 Dukes Laws, Court of Assizes’ Ruling, Ducal Income Crisis “Having personally battled the Parliamentarians in the English Civil Wars, the Stuarts held no great love for democratic institutions. So, New York initially had no colonial assembly. Between , Long Island led demands for town meetings, representative government, & a colonial assembly, akin to those in in the nearby colonies. In 1665, Gov. Nicholls ordered a convention at Hempstead to convene to ratify “The Duke’s Laws” to govern the colony, handed down from on high., not without some local protest. The Laws deliberately avoided mention of traditional “rights of Englishmen” or of local representation. The Court of Assizes, effective colonial supreme court, condescendingly told them to forget Nicholls’ 1664 promise of English-style governance to L.I., traditional forms of representation & that nothing was “required of them but obedience and submission to the Lawes of the Government.” It was not until a Ducal government financial crisis, starting in 1680, that the cry became general among colonists outside L.I., who sensed their “power of the purse” over the Duke & his provincial government. The Duke was not pleased, as would become evident later.

40 : The Duke Outmaneuvered & The Empire Strikes Back, Pt. 2 The Duke by the Purse Strings Caught: Gov. Dongan, 1 st Generall Assembly & Charter of Libertyes A gubernatorial interregnum, following Edmund Andros’ recall (1680), before he could renew the customs duty laws, led to a near tax mutiny over local representation in N.Y., , including legal challenges to the Duke’s right to collect provincial customs duties. His remaining revenues thus threatened (having just lost those of N.J., about one-third of the total), the pressured Duke, whose right of succession to the Crown was just then being challenged in England, reluctantly agreed to authorize a colonial legislature, as if it had been his idea all along, to put a good face on it.. New Gov. Thomas Dongan granted New-York its 1 st colonial legislature, the General Assembly, which very quickly promulgated a Charter of Liberties & Privileges (1685), a precursor of the U.S. Bill of Rights. When James became king, things quickly changed. The right of General Assembly and the Charter of Libertyes were revoked, and a general reorganization of the colonies & their government was begun.

41 : The Duke Outmaneuvered & The Empire Strikes Back, Pt. 3 Asserting Dominion: Consolidation of Colonies Under One Thumb Cast Down, Even Unto the Dominion of New England Dominion of New England, Sir Edmund Andros Between , James II began reining in the opposition, recalling and revoking the charters that had established Puritan New England colonies, the consolidating them into a single entity, the Dominion of New England, New-York included, on the model of a Spanish Viceroyalty, with iron-fisted Sir Edmund Andros, as governor. On December 27, 1686, the Dongan Patent (or Charter) established town officers, annual election dates, a seal, and the town’s power of taxation. Its provisions largely still prevail. Counties and towns replaced Ridings Across the Sound: After Mass. Bay lost their charter to the crown, Connecticut conveniently “lost” theirs, hiding it in the hollow of an oak tree, awaiting a favorable change of regime in England, when the charter was again “found” & royally reconfirmed, in The tree, known as “The Charter Oak”, is the state symbol on Connecticut’s U.S. state commemorative quarter.” Source: Lovejoy, David S. The Glorious Revolution in America. New York: Harper & Row, Pubrs., 1972:

42 The Customs Rates & Duties Crisis, “When the 3-year term of setting Ducal Customs rates & duties expried in November 1680, without a Governor to renew them, colonists willfully ignored them, which meant no funds to support the government or pay the Duke his due. When Customs collectors in New York City and at Albany tried to enforce them they became targets of popular unrest. New York: Collector William Dyer was called before the Court of Assizes to answer charges, & questioned their authority to try him, as both were appointed by the Duke. He was sent to England for trial, where the prosecutor never showed up. Albany: Collector Robert Livingston took John De Lavall to court for non-payment of a taxes on 510 gallons of rum. De Lavall questioned Livingston’s authority to collect the excise, the legality of the tax itself, and whether or the colonists were “free born subjects of the king?” and if not, under which king’s reign had this state of affairs ceased to exist? Too hot to handle, the case was passed on to New York. Extralegal conventions of multi-town delegates at Huntington & Oyster Bay petitioned & defiantly reacted (respectively) to the Court of Assizes’ order to disperse and “Remaine in Quiett.” The colony’s calls for a legislature grew. It would be nice to know what average Brookhavenites were thinking while this was going on. A nice project for historians and genealogists to explore, as town records are fairly silent, other than on domestic affairs. This clamor, James’ need for a little popularity at the height of the Exclusion crisis in England, the interests of his own purse & government, &perhaps persuasion, as David S. Lovejoy suggests, by Matthias Nicholls, N.Y. Governor’s Council Secy., who understood the situation, and joined James in his temporary Scottish exile, seem to have done the trick. There would be a legislature, for now.” Lovejoy, David S. The Glorious Revolution in America. New York: Harper & Row., 1972:

43 Curtailing Colonial Smuggling, with Indians Pt. 1 January 28, 1681 Curtailing Colonial Smuggling, with Indians Pt. 1 King Philip’s War Era Proclamation Renewed in Restraint of Trade January 28, 1681 “A Proclamacion Renewing A Former Proclamacion prohibiting trade with the Indians in their Townes and Plantacions in the Country, By the Commander in Chiefe and Councell “A Proclamacion Renewing A Former Proclamacion prohibiting trade with the Indians in their Townes and Plantacions in the Country, By the Commander in Chiefe and Councell Upon Complaint of many Disorders and Mischeifs that had Happened and were Likely to Happen by Christians tradeing with Indians Contrary to Lawin Indian Townes or Plantacions, or Abroad in the Country or Rivers,There Issued out a Proclamacion the 14 th of March 1676/7 Requiring all Magistrates Officers or Persons Whatsoever to [be] very Vigilent that noe person or persons Vessells Boate or Canoe, Doe on any Pretence by Land or Water trade with any Indians upon penalty of forfeiture of all Such Vessells Boate or Canoes and the Goods they shall soe Carry they may be proceeded Againstthe Discovererwhether Indian or other to have all the said Goods or the Value Allowed them for Whereas Upon Complaint of many Disorders and Mischeifs that had Happened and were Likely to Happen by Christians tradeing with Indians Contrary to Law in Indian Townes or Plantacions, or Abroad in the Country or Rivers, There Issued out a Proclamacion the 14 th of March 1676/7 Requiring all Magistrates Officers or Persons Whatsoever to [be] very Vigilent that noe person or persons Vessells Boate or Canoe, Doe on any Pretence by Land or Water trade with any Indians upon penalty of forfeiture of all Such Vessells Boate or Canoes and the Goods they shall soe Carry to trade with or trade for, Which were to be Secured and Conveyed to the Sheriffe of this Citty, or present Notice given that they may be proceeded Against as Above, when the Discoverer whether Indian or other to have all the said Goods or the Value Allowed them for

44 Curtailing Colonial Smuggling with Indians, Pt. 2 January 28, 1681 Curtailing Colonial Smuggling with Indians, Pt. 2 King Philip’s War Era Proclamation Renewed in Restraint of Trade, January 28, 1681 Discovery with Punishment for Concealing or not Discovering the Same, And by Dayly Complaints Being made of the Like Disorders and Mischeifs Aforesaid, These are therefore to Continue and Renue the said ProclamacionRequire all Magistrates and Other Officers fully to putt the same in Execution and to Exact and the penaltyes therein Directed as Aforesaid Discovery with Punishment for Concealing or not Discovering the Same, as in and by the said Proclamacion may more att Large Appear, Which being Limited for one Yeare from the said Date is Expired. And by Dayly Complaints Being made of the Like Disorders and Mischeifs Occasioned by the said trade with the Indians as Aforesaid, These are therefore to Continue and Renue the said Proclamacion and in his Majesties name to Require all Magistrates and Other Officers fully to putt the same in Execution and to Exact and the penaltyes therein Directed as Aforesaid from the person or persons Offensing or Acting Contrary there to till further Order, of which all persons are to take Notice and Conforme themselves Accordingly Att their perills, Dated in New Yorke…. To the Dep: Mayor and Aldermen of the Citty of New Yorke to be forthwith Published. A[nthony]. B[rockholls].” Source: Books of General Entries of the Colony of New York, (New York Historical Manuscripts: English), ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., Inc., Pub. Under the Direction of the Holland Society of New York, 1982: pp. 226.

45 Aperill 8 th 1682 Coepy Right on Whales & Rendering Agreement “These presents biendeth us guy and towaring Indiens to try for Andrew gibb what whaeles shall be killed by coepy and his company the next whaling season the saide gibb fiending barells sieths potts and cooling troughs needful as allsoe to allow and pay unto the said guy and towaring after the Raete of two shillins six pence per barell snd to giue ech of them two bushells of Indien corn for the whole season if any whaeles shall be killed by coepy and company as wittnes our hands at brookhaven the 19 od Aperill 1682 “These presents biendeth us guy and towaring Indiens to try for Andrew gibb what whaeles shall be killed by coepy and his company the next whaling season the saide gibb fiending barells sieths potts and cooling troughs needful as allsoe to allow and pay unto the said guy and towaring after the Raete of two shillins six pence per barell snd to giue ech of them two bushells of Indien corn for the whole season if any whaeles shall be killed by coepy and company as wittnes our hands at brookhaven the 19 od Aperill 1682 The mark of G of guy Indian the mark V of towaring The mark of G of guy Indian the mark V of towaring Wittnes John X aleApoty Wittnes John X aleApoty The mark of me goodgeyr Indian” The mark of me goodgeyr Indian” Source: Brookhaven (N.Y. : Town). Records of the Town of Brookhaven, Book B, New York: Derrydale Press, 1932: p. 109.

46 Poesing for a Whailng Aperill 1682 Indian Signs on as Ship-hand to Go to Sea in a Whaler “This wrieting ingageth me poes Indian to goe to sea upon the whaelling desaigne as a halue [half] share man for John Tooker Junior of brookhaven for and dureing the whole season next ensueing the saide Tooker to fiende boets and craft dureing the saide term as wittnes my hand in brookhaven the 17 day of march anno domi[ni] 1682” “This wrieting ingageth me poes Indian to goe to sea upon the whaelling desaigne as a halue [half] share man for John Tooker Junior of brookhaven for and dureing the whole season next ensueing the saide Tooker to fiende boets and craft dureing the saide term as wittnes my hand in brookhaven the 17 day of march anno domi[ni] 1682” Records of the Town of Brookhaven, Book B, Source: Brookhaven (N.Y. : Town). Records of the Town of Brookhaven, Book B, New York: Derrydale Press, 1932: p. 110.

47 A Releasing of Debts From the Beginning of the World to this Day 31 maij 1682 John Tooker senyerof brookhaven “…Know all men by these pressens that I John Tooker senyer of brookhaven doth cleare all depts dues and demands from the beginning of the world to this day 30 of may 1682 from henery Rogers of the aboue said towne” Source: Brookhaven (N.Y. : Town). Records of the Town of Brookhaven, Book B, New York: Derrydale Press, 1932: p. 115.

48 Tar for Land A Barrel an Acre, £ 1 a Barrel -- June 2, 1682 Tar for Land Precursor to the Paving Over of Brookhaven? A Barrel an Acre, £ 1 a Barrel -- June 2, 1682 benJemen smith sould his 15 aker lott and share of medow in the ould purchas at the southunto samuell daiton paide the Just some [sum] offifteene poundsin tarr being 15 barells to send by the boets when thay come to the south the aboue said daiton is ingaged to bring it to this towne” “These pressents testifieth that benJemen smith haue for himselue his haires and asaigns haue been grantted bargened and sould his 15 aker lott and share of medow in the ould purchas at the south nomb [number] 26 unto samuell daiton to him his haires and assaigns to haue and to hould for ever with out lett mollestation and in concideration of the aboue said 15 akers of upland and share of medow the aboue said samuell daiton doth ingage to pay or cause to be paide the Just some [sum] of fifteene pounds to be paide in tarr being 15 barells to be paide at or before the 29 of sept next ensueing the date here of what tarr canot be Redy to send by the boets when thay come to the south the aboue said daiton is ingaged to bring it to this towne” Source: Brookhaven (N.Y. : Town). Records of the Town of Brookhaven, Book B, New York: Derrydale Press, 1932: p. 120.

49 A Setauket Shipwreck A Setauket Shipwreck August, 18 & 20, 1683 “Two Letters fromCapt. [Anthony] Brockhollsto Mr. Justice Woodhull: “Two Letters from Capt. [Anthony] Brockholls to Mr. Justice Woodhull: New Yorke August 18 th : 1683 New Yorke August 18 th : 1683 Sir. Am Informed by the bearer that a Vessell is lately C[a]st away and shipwrecked on Seatalcott South and [?] Severall of the men are saved but having noe [word?] from you or Towne Advise you thereof…. Sir. Am Informed by the bearer that a Vessell is lately C[a]st away and shipwrecked on Seatalcott South and [?] Severall of the men are saved but having noe [word?] from you or Towne Advise you thereof…. [3 lines lost]. [3 lines lost]. New Yorke August 20 th, 1683 New Yorke August 20 th, 1683 Mr. Justice Woodhull Mr. Justice Woodhull Sir. The Last weeke I heard that A vessell was Cast away with[in?] the bounds of your Towne about which having noe account from you gave Advise by Letter the 19 th Past to your selfe Desireing that all Assistance be given as occasio[n demands?] which have this Evening Received a Letter from yo[ u.] Another from the Master Giving an Accountt thereof an[?] saved which you did well to send hither but… Sir. The Last weeke I heard that A vessell was Cast away with[in?] the bounds of your Towne about which having noe account from you gave Advise by Letter the 19 th Past to your selfe Desireing that all Assistance be given as occasio[n demands?] which have this Evening Received a Letter from yo[ u.] Another from the Master Giving an Accountt thereof an[?] saved which you did well to send hither but… [3 lines lost]. [3 lines lost]. Your Affectionate Friend Your Affectionate Friend A[nthony] B[rockholls].” A[nthony] B[rockholls].” Source: Books of General Entries of the Colony of New York, (New York Historical Manuscripts: English), ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., Inc., Pub. Under the Direction of the Holland Society of New York, 1982: pp Source: Books of General Entries of the Colony of New York, (New York Historical Manuscripts: English), ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., Inc., Pub. Under the Direction of the Holland Society of New York, 1982: pp

50 Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 1 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1684, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted, 1691) New-York Provincial General Assembly Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 1 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1684, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted, 1691) “Preamble:Ffor The better Establishing the Government of this province of New Yorke and that Justice May be Equally done to all persons “Preamble: Ffor The better Establishing the Government of this province of New Yorke and that Justice May be Equally done to all persons within the same BEE It Enacted by the Governour Councell and Representatives now in General Assembly mett and assembled and by the Authority of the same. Supreme Legislative Authority shall forever be and reside in a Governour, Councell, and the people mett in General Assembly. 1. THAT The Supreme Legislative Authority under his Majesty and Royall Highnesse James Duke of Yorke Albany &c Lord proprietor of the said province shall forever be and reside in a Governour, Councell, and the people mett in General Assembly.

51 Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 2 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) New-York Provincial General Assembly Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 2 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) 2.Chiefe Magistracy and Administracon shall bee in the said Governour assisted by a Councellwith whose advice and Consent or with at least four of them he is to rule and Governeaccording to the Lawes thereof. 2. THAT The Exercise of the Chiefe Magistracy and Administracon of the Government over the said province shall bee in the said Governour assisted by a Councell with whose advice and Consent or with at least four of them he is to rule and Governe the same according to the Lawes thereof. 3.In Case the Governour shall dye or be absent out of the provinceand that there be noe person within the said province Comissionatedto be Governour or Comander in Chiefe therethe Councell for the time beingtake upon them the Administracon of the Governour and the Execucon of the Lawespowers and authorityes belonging to the Governour and Councellthe first in nominacon in which Councell is to preside untill the said Governour shallreturne or the pleasure of his Royall Highnesse his heires or Successours Shall be further knowne. 3. THAT In Case the Governour shall dye or be absent out of the province and that there be noe person within the said province Comissionated by his Royall Highnesse his heires or Successours to be Governour or Comander in Chiefe there That then the Councell for the time being or Soe many of them as are in the Said province doe take upon them the Administracon of the Governour and the Execucon of the Lawes thereof and powers and authorityes belonging to the Governour and Councell the first in nominacon in which Councell is to preside untill the said Governour shall returne and arrive in the said province againe, or the pleasure of his Royall Highnesse his heires or Successours Shall be further knowne.

52 Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 3 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted, 1691) New-York Provincial General Assembly Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 3 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted, 1691) 4. sessions of a Generall Assembly be held in this province once in three yeares at least. 4. When to According to the usage Custome and practice of the Realme of England a sessions of a Generall Assembly be held in this province once in three yeares at least. 5.Every ffreeholder within this province and ffreeman in any CorporaconShall have his free Choise and Vote in the Electing of the Representativeswithout any manner of constraint or Imposicon. in all Eleccons the majority of Voices shall carry itt 5. THAT Every ffreeholder within this province and ffreeman in any Corporacon Shall have his free Choise and Vote in the Electing of the Representatives without any manner of constraint or Imposicon. And that in all Eleccons the majority of Voices shall carry itt and by ffreeholders is understood every one who is Soe understood according to the Lawes of England. 6.personsElected sitt as representatives in the Generall Assemblyfor the severall Cittyes townes Countyes Shires or Divisions of this province according to the proporcon and number hereafter Expressed for the Citty and County of Yorke four, for the County of Suffolke two, for Queens County two, for Kings County two, for the County of Richmond two, for the County of West Chester two, for the County of Ulster two, for the County of Albany two, and for Schenectade within the said County one, for Dukes County two, for the County of Cornwall 6. THAT the persons to be Elected sitt as representatives in the Generall Assembly from time to time for the severall Cittyes townes Countyes Shires or Divisions of this province and all places within the same shall be according to the proporcon and number hereafter Expressed that is to say for the Citty and County of Yorke four, for the County of Suffolke two, for Queens County two, for Kings County two, for the County of Richmond two, for the County of West Chester two, for the County of Ulster two, for the County of Albany two, and for Schenectade within the said County one, for Dukes County two, for the County of Cornwall [two?] and as many more as his Royall Highnesse shall think fitt to Establish.

53 Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 4 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) New-York Provincial General Assembly Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 4 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) 7.All persons Chosen and Assembled in manner aforesaid shall be deemed and accounted the Representatives of this province which together with the Covernour and Councell, Shall forever be the Supreame and only legislative power 7. THAT All persons Chosen and Assembled in manner aforesaid or the Major part of them shall be deemed and accounted the Representatives of this province which said Representatives together with the Covernour and Councell, Shall forever be the Supreame and only legislative power under his Royall Highnesse of the said province. 8.Representatives may appoint their owne Times of meetingmay adjournefrom time to time 8. THAT The said Representatives may appoint their owne Times of meeting dureing their sessions and may adjourne their house from time to time t such time as to them shall seeme meet and convenient. 9.The said Representatives are the sole judges of the Qualifications of their owne members and of all undue Eleccons and may from time to time purge their house as they shall see occasion 9. THAT The said Representatives are the sole judges of the Qualifications of their owne members, and likewise of all undue Eleccons and may from time to time purge their house as they shall see occasion dureing the said sessions. [Sowing seeds of discord, so as not to trouble the proprietor, or render him arbiter?] 10.Noe member of the general Assemblyor their servants dureing the time of their Sessions and whitest [while] they shall be goeing to and returning from the said Assembly shall be arrested sued imprisoned or any wayes molested or troubled nor be compelled to make answereto 10. THAT Noe member of the general Assembly or their servants dureing the time of their Sessions and whitest [while] they shall be goeing to and returning from the said Assembly shall be arrested sued imprisoned or any wayes molested or troubled nor be compelled to make answere to

54 Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 5 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) New-York Provincial General Assembly Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 5 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) any suit, Bill, plaint, Declaracon or otherwise (Cases of High Treason and felony only excepted)provided the number of the said servants shall not exceed three. any suit, Bill, plaint, Declaracon or otherwise (Cases of High Treason and felony only excepted) provided the number of the said servants shall not exceed three. 11.All bills agreed upon by the said Representatives shall be presented unto the Governour and Councell for their Approbacon and ConsentEvery which Said Bills soe approved of Consented to by the Governour and his Councell shall be Esteemed and accounted the Lawes of the province remaine of force untillrepealed by Governour Councell and Representatives in General Assemblyby and with the Approbacon of his Royall Highnesse or expire by their own Limittacons 11. THAT All bills agreed upon by the said Representatives or the major part of them shall be presented unto the Governour and Councell for their Approbacon and Consent All and Every which Said Bills soe approved of Consented to by the Governour and his Councell shall be Esteemed and accounted the Lawes of the province, Which said Lawes shall continue and remaine of force untill they shall be repealed by the authority aforesaid that is to say the Governour Councell and Representatives in General Assembly by and with the Approbacon of his Royall Highnesse or expire by their own Limittacons. 12.In all cases of death or removall of any of the said Representatives The Governour shall issue out a Summons by Writ willing and requireing the ffreeholders of the Same to Elect others in their place and stead. 12. THAT In all cases of death or removall of any of the said Representatives The Governour shall issue out a Summons by Writ to the Respective Towns Cittyes Shires Countyes or Divisions for which he or they soe removed or deceased were Chosen willing and requireing the ffreeholders of the Same to Elect others in their place and stead.

55 Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 6 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) New-York Provincial General Assembly Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 6 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) 16.ffreeman shall not be amerced for a small fault, but after the manner of his fault andfor a great fault after the Greatnesse thereofSaveing to him his freehold, And a husbandman saveing to him wis Wainage and a merchant likewise saveing to him his merchandisenone of the said Amerciaments shall be assessed but by the oath of twelve honest and Lawfull men provided the faults and misdemeanors be not in Contempt of Courts 16. THAT A ffreeman shall not be amerced for a small fault, but after the manner of his fault and for a great fault after the Greatnesse thereof Saveing to him his freehold, And a husbandman saveing to him wis Wainage and a merchant likewise saveing to him his merchandise And none of the said Amerciaments shall be assessed but by the oath of twelve honest and Lawfull men of the Vicinage [vicinity?] provided the faults and misdemeanors be not in Contempt of Courts of Judicature. 17.ALL Tryalls shall be by the verdict of twelve men, and as neer as may be peers or EquallsAnd of the neighbourhood and in the County Shire or Division where the fact Shall arise Whetherby Indictment Infermacon Declaracon or otherwise 17. ALL Tryalls shall be by the verdict of twelve men, and as neer as may be peers or Equalls And of the neighbourhood and in the County Shire or Division where the fact Shall arise or grow Whether the Same be by Indictment Infermacon Declaracon or otherwise against the person Offender or Defendant.

56 Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 7 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) New-York Provincial General Assembly Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 7 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) 18.In all Cases Capitall or Criminall there shall be a grand Inquest twelve men of the neighborhood to try the Offender after his plea to the Indictment shall be allowed his reasonable challenges. 18. THAT In all Cases Capitall or Criminall there shall be a grand Inquest who shall first present the offence and then twelve men of the neighborhood to try the Offender who after his plea to the Indictment shall be allowed his reasonable challenges. 19.Bayle by sufficient Suretyes unlesse for treason or felony plainly and specially Expressed and menconed in the Warrant of Commitment nothing shall Extend to discharge any person taken in Execucon for debts or otherwise legally sentenced 19. THAT in all Cases whatsoever Bayle by sufficient Suretyes shall be allowed and taken unlesse for treason or felony plainly and specially Expressed and menconed in the Warrant of Commitment provided Alwayes that nothing herein contained shall Extend to discharge out of prison upon bayle any person taken in Execucon for debts or otherwise legally sentenced by the judgment of any of the Courts of Record within the province.

57 Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 8 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) New-York Provincial General Assembly Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 8 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) 20.Noe Comissions for proceeding by Marshall Law against any of his Majestyes Subjectsshall issue forth Least by Colour of them any of his Majestyes Subjects be destroyed or putt to death Except all such officers persons and soldiers in pay throughout the Government. 20. THAT Noe Comissions for proceeding by Marshall Law against any of his Majestyes Subjects within this province shall issue forth to any person or persons whatsoever Least by Colour of them any of his Majestyes Subjects be destroyed or putt to death Except all such officers persons and soldiers in pay throughout the Government. Noe Lands Within this province shall be Esteemed or accounted a Chattle or personall Estate but an Estate of Inheritanceacording to the Custome and practice of his Majestyes Realme of England. 21. THAT From hence forward Noe Lands Within this province shall be Esteemed or accounted a Chattle or personall Estate but an Estate of Inheritance acording to the Custome and practice of his Majestyes Realme of England. 22.Noe Court or Courts within this province have Jurisdiccon power or authority to grant out any Execticon or orther writ whereby aany mans Lands shall or may be Extended by Execuconor otherwise to satisfy just debts 22. THAT Noe Court or Courts within this province have or at any time hereafter Shall have any Jurisdiccon power or authority to grant out any Execticon or orther writ whereby aany mans Lands shall or may be Extended by Execucon or otherwise to satisfy just debts Any thing to the Contrary hereof in any wise Nothwithstanding.

58 Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 9 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) New-York Provincial General Assembly Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 9 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) 23.Noe Estate of a feme Covert shall be sold or conveyed But by a Deed acknowledged by her in some Court of Record the Woman being secretly Examined 23. THAT Noe Estate of a feme Covert shall be sold or conveyed But by a Deed acknowledged by her in some Court of Record the Woman being secretly Examined if She doth it freely without threats or Compulsion of her husband. 24.All Wills in writeing attested by two Credible Witnesses shall be of the same force to convey Landsbeing registered in the Secretaryes Office within forty dayes after the testators death 24. THAT All Wills in writeing attested by two Credible Witnesses shall be of the same force to convey Lands as other Conveyances being registered in the Secretaryes Office within forty dayes after the testators death. 25.Widow after the death of her husband shall have her Dower forty dayes her Dower shall be assigned her And for her Dower shall be assigned unto her the third part of all the Lands of husbandExcept shee were Endowed of Lesse before Marriage. 25. THAT A Widow after the death of her husband shall have her Dower And shalland may tarry in the Chiefe house of her husband forty dayes after the death of her husband within which forty dayes her Dower shall be assigned her And for her Dower shall be assigned unto her the third part of all the Lands of husband dureing Coverture, Except shee were Endowed of Lesse before Marriage.

59 Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 10 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) New-York Provincial General Assembly Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 10 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) 26.Lands and Heritages free from all fines and Lycences upon Alienacons, and from all Herricitts Ward Shipps Liveryes primer Seizins yeare day and Wast Esclieats and forfeitures upon the death of parents and Ancestors naturall unaturall, casuall or Judiciall High treason only Excepted. 26. THAT All Lands and Heritages within this province and Dependency shall be free from all fines and Lycences upon Alienacons, and from all Herricitts Ward Shipps Liveryes primer Seizins yeare day and Wast Esclieats and forfeitures upon the death of parents and Ancestors naturall unaturall, casuall or Judiciall, and forever, Cases of High treason only Excepted. 27.Noe person or persons which professe ffaith in God by Jesus Christ* Shall at any time be any wayes molested punished disquieted or called in Question for any Difference in opinion or Matter of Religious Concernmentwho doe not actually disturb the Civill peace 27. THAT Noe person or persons which professe ffaith in God by Jesus Christ* Shall at any time be any wayes molested punished disquieted or called in Question for any Difference in opinion or Matter of Religious Concernment, who doe not actually disturb the Civill peace of the province, But that all and Every such persons may from time to time and at all times freely have and fully enjoy his or their judgments or Consciencyes in matters of Religion throughout the province, they * Note: Anyone else was fair game. Yet, even this much flexibility was well beyond what many colonial governments were willing to allow. Remember, the 30 Years’ War was within reach of living memory, & notions of religious tolerance had a long way to go, esp. on Long Island.

60 Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 11 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) New-York Provincial General Assembly Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 11 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) behaveing themselves peaceably and quietly and not using this Liberty to Lycentiousnesse nor to the Civill Injury or provided Alwayes that this liberty or any thing contained therein to the Contrary shall never be Construed or improved to make void the Settlement of any publique Minister on Long Island Whether Such Settlement be by two thirds of the voices in any Towne thereon outward disturbance of others provided Alwayes that this liberty or any thing contained therein to the Contrary shall never be Construed or improved to make void the Settlement of any publique Minister on Long Island Whether Such Settlement be by two thirds of the voices in any Towne thereon which shall Alwayes include the Minor part Or by Subscripcons of perticuler Inhabitants in Said Townes provided they are the two thirds thereon Butt that all such agreements Covenants and Subscripcons that are there already made and had Or that hereafter shall bee in this manner Consented to agreed and Subscribed shall at all time and times hereafter be firme and Stable And in Confirmacon hereof It is Enacted by the Governor Councell and Representatives’; That all Such Stimes of money soe agreed and Consented to or Subscribedas aforesaid for maintenance of said Publick Ministers by the two thirds of any Towne on Long Island Shall alwayes include the Minor PROVIDED Alwayes the said sume or sums be under forty shillings otherwise to be recovered as the Law directs.

61 Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 12 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) New-York Provincial General Assembly Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 12 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) Christian Churches they and Every of them Shall from henceforth forever be held and reputed as priviledged Chruches all Christian Churches that Shall hereafter come and settle with in this province shall have the Same priviledges AND WHEREAS All the Respective Christian Churches now in practice within the City of New Yorke and the other places of this province doe appeare to be priviledged Churches and have beene Soe Estblished and Confirmedby the former authority of this Government BEE it hereby Enacted by this General Assembly and by the Authority thereof That the Said Respective Christian Churches be hereby Confirmed therein And that they and Every of them Shall from henceforth forever be held and reputed as priviledged Chruches and Enjoy all their former freedoms; of their Religion in Divine Worshipp and Chruch Discipline And that all former Contracts made and agreed upon for the maintenances of the severall ministers of the Said Churches shall stand and continue in full force and virtue And that all Contracts for the future to be made Shall be of the same power And all persons that are unwilling to performe their part of the said Contract Shall be Constrained thereunto, by a warrant from any justice of the peace provided it be under forty shillings Or otherwise as this Law directs provided allsoe that all Christian Churches that Shall hereafter come and settle with in this province shall have the Same priviledges part who shall be regulated thereby And also such Subscripcons and agreements.

62 Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 13 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) New-York Provincial General Assembly Charter of Libertyes & Privileges, Pt. 13 October 30, 1683 (Approved 1694, Suspended, 1685, Reconstituted 1691) if any Towne on said Island in their publick Capacity of agreement with any such Minister or any perticuler persons by their private Subscriptions as aforesaid Shall make default deny or withdraw from Such payment upon Complaint of any Collector appointed and Chosen by two thirds of Such Towne upon Long Island unto any Justice of that County, upon his hearing the Same, he is hereby authorized empowered and required to issue out his warrant for the collection of said rates or agreement to levy upon the goods and Chattlesof the said Delinquent or Defaulter as are before menconed are and Shall be alwayes ratified performed and paid, And if any Towne on said Island in their publick Capacity of agreement with any such Minister or any perticuler persons by their private Subscriptions as aforesaid Shall make default deny or withdraw from Such payment Soe Covenanted to agreed upon and Subscribed That in Such Case upon Complaint of any Collector appointed and Chosen by two thirds of Such Towne upon Long Island unto any Justice of that County, upon his hearing the Same, he is hereby authorized empowered and required to issue out his warrant unto the Constable or Deputy or any other person apopointed for the collection of said rates or agreement to levy upon the goods and Chattles of the said Delinquent or Defaulter all such Sumes of money Soe covenanted and agreed to be paid by distresse with Costs and Charges without any further Suite in Law Any Lawe Custome or usage to the Contrary in any wise Notwithstanding.” [Note: Tithes were due even from non-believers.] Charter of Liberties and Privileges – 1683, The Constitutional History of New York. Source: Charter of Liberties and Privileges – 1683, in turn, drawn from Lincoln, Charles Z. The Constitutional History of New York. Rochester, NY: Lawyers Cooperative Pub. Co.,

63 Charter of Liberties & Privileges Royally Struck Down, Pt March 3, 1684 “Veto of the Act entitled, The Charter of Liberties and Privileges for the Province of New York [Board of Trade Journals, v. 101] At the Committee of Trade and Plantations in the Council Chamber at Whitehall. Tuesday the 3d day of March 1684 THE KINGS MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY. Present --- THE KINGS MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY. Lord KeeperEarl of Peterborough Lord TreasurerEarl of Sunderland Lord PresidentEarl of Middleton Lo Privie SealeLd Viscount Falconberg Duke of BeaufortLord Dartmouth Earl of HuntingtonLord Godolphin Earl of Bridgewater Mr Chr of ye Exchqr Charter of Incorporation of the Province of New York His Majesty doth not think fitt to confirm the same. The Charter of Incorporation of the Province of New York, is read, and the several powers and priviledges therein granted being considered His Majesty doth not think fitt to confirm the same. And as to the governmentof New York His Majesty is

64 Charter of Liberties & Privileges Royally Struck Down, Pt March 3, 1684 pleased to direct that it be assimilated to the Constitution that shall be agreed on for New England, to which it is adjoining. And in the mean time His Majesty orders a letter to be prepared for his Royal Signature directing Coll. Dongan of New York to pursue such powers and Instructions as hee shall receive under His Majesties signet and sign manual, or by Order in Council until further Order. It is also thought fitt that, a Conveyance offering by Captaine Baxter, another letter bee sent to Col. Dongan from the Lords of the Council directing him to proclaim His Majesty King James the Second, according to the form of a Proclamation of the 6 th, for continuing officers of Government till His Majesty’s pleasure bee further known.” Source: Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of NewYork, Source: Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of NewYork, v. 3., [comp. & ed.] by John Romeyn Brodhead. Albany, NY: Weed, Parsons and Company, Printers, 1853: p. 261.

65 John Roe’s Stray Horse Round-Up License Ultimate Beneficiary:? Roe or the Provincial Cavalry? October 24, 1684 “License to John Roe of Seatalcott, to take up any three stray horses or mares within the province without mark, commonly called strays, and belonging to his royal highness, etc.; Oct. 24, 1684.” Source: Books of General Entries of the Colony of New York, (New York Historical Manuscripts: English), ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., Inc., Pub. Under the Direction of the Holland Society of New York, 1982: p. 413.

66 Asserting Stuart Sovereignty New York Provincial General Assembly Dissolved August 13, 1685 “WHEREAS for the Generall good of this Province I called the Generall Assembly thereof to meet on the 17 th day of October in the 35 th yeare of King Charles the Second of ever Blessed memory, and by thence by severall adjournments thereof continued untill the 29 th day of September now next ensuing, for severall Important reasons, me thereunto moveing, I have thought fitt by and with the consent of the Council to Dessolve the said Generall Assembly Whereof I have thought good to give notice to all the members thereof and to all others whom it may concerne, that they need not give their attendance at the time appointed according to the adjournment aforesaid. Given under my hand at Fort James this 13 th day of August 1685, and in the first yeare of his Majestys Reigne THO DONGAN “ Source: Books of General Entries of the Colony of New York, (New York Historical Manuscripts: English), ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., Inc., Pub. Under the Direction of the Holland Society of New York, 1982: p. 415.

67 Royalization of New-York Lands: Another Required Round of Reconfirmations1686 Royalization of New-York Lands: Another Required Round of Reconfirmations: 1686 James, Duke of York,James II of England. Just as everyone had begun to think their landholdings safe, under the proprietorship, Charles II died, to be succeeded by James, Duke of York, who now became James II of England. Almost overnight the province of New-Yorkunderwenta qualitative legal elevation from mere proprietary holding to royal colony. Almost overnight the province of New-York underwent a qualitative legal elevation from mere proprietary holding to royal colony. It was now a direct holding of the Crown. bonanza for James II & royal officialdomin New-Yorkrequired all previous landholdings to be reconfirmedby agents of the crown, usually involving a fee or some other consideration. This was a much-needed bonanza for James II & royal officialdom in New-York, as it required all previous landholdings to be reconfirmed by agents of the crown, usually involving a fee or some other consideration. Colonials, while not thrilled (to put it mildly), had no choice but to conform, or forfeit title to their own land So, convolution in the practice of granting & securing land titles (to say nothing of today’s C.O.’s) via an inexact system of payouts & special arrangements has a long history in the State and in Brookhaven Town.

68 Excerpts of James II’s Instructions to Gov. Dongan, Pt. 1 Excerpts of James II’s Instructions to Gov. Dongan, Pt. 1 Selected Financial Clauses Privileges Prolonged by Power of the Purse May 29, 1686 Bill or Charter passed in ye late Assemblyof New York, containing several ffranchises, privileges & Immunities You are to Declare Our Will & pleasure that ye said Bill or Charter of Franchises bee forthwith repealed & disallowed But you are nevertheless with our said Council to continue the Dutys & Impositions therein mentioned to be raised untill you shall with the consent of the Council settle such Taxes and Impositions as shall be sufficient fr ye support of our Governmt of New York. “12. And whereas wee have been presented with a Bill or Charter passed in ye late Assembly of New York, containing several ffranchises, privileges & Immunities mentioned to be granted to the Inhabitants of our sd province, You are to Declare Our Will & pleasure that ye said Bill or Charter of Franchises bee forthwith repealed & disallowed, as ye same is hereby Repealed, determined & made void. But you are nevertheless with our said Council to continue the Dutys & Impositions therein mentioned to be raised untill you shall with the consent of the Council settle such Taxes and Impositions as shall be sufficient fr ye support of our Governmt of New York And you are particularly not to pass any Law, or doe any Act by Grant, settlemt or otherwise whereby our Revenue may bee lessened or impaired without our especial leave or command therein.” Source: Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of NewYork, Source: Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of NewYork, v. 3., [comp. & ed.] by John Romeyn Brodhead. Albany, NY: Weed, Parsons and Company, Printers, 1853: pp

69 Excerpts of James II’s Instructions to Gov. Dongan, Pt. 2 Excerpts of James II’s Instructions to Gov. Dongan, Pt. 2 Selected Religious Clauses Establishing Anglican Dominion May 29, 1686 “31. You shall take especiall care that God Almighty bee devoutly and duely served throughout yor Government: the Book of Common Prayer, as it is now establisht, read each Sunday and Holyday, and the Blessed Sacrament administered according to the Rites of the Church of England…” 33. Our will and pleasure is that noe minister bee preferred by you to any Ecclesiastical Benefice in that Our Province, without a Certificat from ye most Reverend the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury....” 38. And wee do further direct that noe schoolmaster be henceforth permitted to come from England & to keep school within Our Province of New York, without the license of the said Archbishop of Canterbury....” Ed. Note: Most Brookhaven settlers, who’d established a dissenter church, would not have been thrilled with inroads toward religious dominion, by the Church of England, which they were in the New World to escape. Ed. Note: Most Brookhaven settlers, who’d established a dissenter church, would not have been thrilled with inroads toward religious dominion, by the Church of England, which they were in the New World to escape. Source: Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of NewYork, Source: Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of NewYork, v. 3., [comp. & ed.] by John Romeyn Brodhead. Albany, NY: Weed, Parsons and Company, Printers, 1853: pp. 372.

70 Excerpts of James II’s Instructions to Gov. Dongan, Pt. 3 Excerpts of James II’s Instructions to Gov. Dongan, Pt. 3 Selected Religious Clauses Limits of Moral & Religious Toleration -- May 29, 1686 Drunkeness and Debauchery, Swearing and blasphemy bee severely punisht; “ You are to take care that Drunkeness and Debauchery, Swearing and blasphemy bee severely punisht; And that none bee admitted to publick trust & Implploymt whose ill fame & conversation may bring scandal thereupon.” 42. You shall permit all persons of what Religion soever quietly to inhabit within yor Government without giving them any disturbance or disquiet whatsoever for or by reason of their differing Opinions in matters of Religion Provided they give noe disturbance to ye publick peace, nor doe molest or disquiet others in ye free Exercise of their Religion.” 42. You shall permit all persons of what Religion soever quietly to inhabit within yor Government without giving them any disturbance or disquiet whatsoever for or by reason of their differing Opinions in matters of Religion Provided they give noe disturbance to ye publick peace, nor doe molest or disquiet others in ye free Exercise of their Religion.” Ed. Note: # 42 was unusually tolerant for its time, though not by today’s standards. Source: Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of NewYork, Ed. Note: # 42 was unusually tolerant for its time, though not by today’s standards. Source: Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of NewYork, v. 3., [comp. & ed.] by John Romeyn Brodhead. Albany, NY: Weed, Parsons and Company, Printers, 1853: pp

71 Provincial Control of the Wampum Flow [1685] “Order that no wampum, wampum pipes. Indian jewels or money shall be carried out of the government in the way of trade or traffic, etc.” Source: Books of General Entries of the Colony of New York, (New York Historical Manuscripts: English), ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., Inc., Pub. Under the Direction of the Holland Society of New York, 1982: p Note: “The government,” as used here, means the Province of New-York.. Questions for historians, concerning Brookhaven: Is there evidence of how effective this was? Did it give rise to a brisk smuggling trade, across the Sound, in particular? Documents of this period indicate frequent warrants to ships to track down pirate ships known or believed to be in the area. Was there active profiteering using pirates or privateers as middlemen?

72 Or, The Road from Morocco...to Little Neck, Setauket The Odyssey of William (“Tangier”) Smith, /7, Pt. 1 Or, The Road from Morocco...to Little Neck, Setauket Feb. 2, 1654,William Smith court pageto the royal family, as a 20-year old, in1674, Smith wascommissioned Colonel & designated Mayor of Tangier, by Charles II. Born Feb. 2, 1654, William Smith was reputedly son of a lady-in-waiting to Queen Henrietta Maria according to an uncertain tradition. He was raised as a court page to the royal family, for which he must have shown some form of aptitude, for as a 20-year old, in 1674, Smith was commissioned Colonel & designated Mayor of Tangier, by Charles II The port of Tangier(s) was besieged from the onset. Tangier, Morocco, along with Bombay, India, were the wedding dowries of Portugal’s Charlotte de Braganza, to Charles II of England, in Portuguese political acumen in transferring two resource-straining headaches to England, was soon obvious. The port of Tangier(s) was besieged from the onset. Held precariously by a small English garrison, it was fortified heavily against nearly incessant Moroccan attempts to reclaim their territory. The enclave had the geographic misfortune to be ringed by all-too-near towering limestone cliffs (cut by easily-defended passes). These controlled the landward approaches to the city, favored the besieger, and application of a steady, attritional, galling, fire from the commanding hills. Despite sorties, English strength rarely extended beyond the city walls, and remained insufficient to drive their tormentors away. Despite its strategic position commanding the Western entrance & exit to the Mediterranean, Tangiers gradually came to be viewed as a liability, so as a cost-cutting measure it was eventually abandoned. Britain regretted the loss, eventually replacing it with a more defensible base, on the opposite side of the straits, at Gibraltar.

73 Or, The Road from Morocco...to Little Neck, Setauket The Odyssey of William (“Tangier”) Smith, /7, Pt.2 Or, The Road from Morocco...to Little Neck, Setauket While at Tangiers, Col. Smith met &married Martha Tunstall, He remained mayor until England abandoned the city (in 1684). He remained mayor until England abandoned the city (in 1684). August 6, 1686, supposedly Province’s first coach Relieved of duty (& briefly unemployed, but well connected), Col. Smith dabbled successfully as a London merchant. Whether on a business trip to expand his trading connections, simply seeking greener pastures, or both, he arrived, with his family, in New York on August 6, 1686, supposedly bringing along the Province’s first coach. New-York Governor Dongan (former Lt. Gov. of Tangiers)a potential ally, in need. Setauket Little Neck Setauket, to Smith on Oct. 22, 1687, It may well have been New-York Governor Dongan (former Lt. Gov. of Tangiers) who persuaded Smith to come, recognizing in him a potential ally, in need. Dongan may have had it in mind to situate Smith where he might best serve as a local eminence, trusted eyes & ears of Governor & Crown, in hostile Puritan territory. He may well suggested the Setauket area. Taking a side trip there, Smith eyed the real estate, and noted an opportunity. Numerous squabbling landowners were embroiled in a local territorial dispute. Gov. Dongan interceded on Smith’s behalf, & persuaded them to settle their differences by selling Little Neck [today’s Strong’s Neck] in Setauket, to Smith on Oct. 22, 1687, The sale likely gained the villagers a tidy profit, defused the situation, & made Smith’s family welcome, as peacemaker. His landholdings steadily expanded. That same year (1687) Smith was appointed to the Governor’s Council. That same year (1687), Smith was appointed to the Governor’s Council.

74 “Certaine Vexacious Peticion:” Reining in a Smithtown Father Asserting Provincial Supremacy Over the Towns Part of ongoing Brookhaven-Smithtown Boundary Squabbles? March 13, 1687 [Order on a Petition by Samuel Eborne, to Traverse the Petition of Richard Smith] “Province of New Yorke Councill held at Fort [James] Tuesday the 13th day [of March] 1687/8. Upon Reading the Peticion [?] Setting forth that Richard S[mith ?] Board was rescin[? line lost] …Certaine Vexacious Peticion Exhibited Against him by the said Smith and notwithstanding that the said Smith has been Served with the said Order or a warrant Thereupon he hath neverthelesse refused to pay the Said Sume All which having been made Appeare to this board, itt is thereupon thought fitt and this day Accordingly Ordered by his Majesties Councill of this Province that Thomas Helme one of the Trustees of the Town of Brockhaven be hereby Empowred and required to take the said Richard Smith into his Custody for his Contempt of the said Order and him safly keepe Untill he shall have Fully payed the same and pay all the Further Charges occasioned by his Contempt.” Source: Books of General Entries of the Colony of New York, (New York Historical Manuscripts: English), ed. by Peter R. Christoph & Florence A. Christoph. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., Inc., Pub. Under the Direction of the Holland Society of New York, 1982: pp

75 1 st Town School Master Roots of Brookhaven Town’s Educational System July Ye 13 th, 1687 “At a legall Towne meeting, warned by Justice Woodhull’s wart, It was voted and agreed that ten pounds a yeare shall be paid to ye maintenance of a Schole master for the future, soe long as a schole master shall officiate amongst us by the publique. Further, it was agreed that five of the Trustees should, with Mr. Francis Williamson to officiate in the Towne as scholemaster for the sum of thirty pounds a yeare, twenty pounds wherof is to be paid by the children for ye year. Entered by me, THO. HELME, Clerk.”

76 Between Brookhaven Town & The Winthrop Patent Boundary Dispute Settlement Ordered Between Brookhaven Town & The Winthrop Patent 9/3/1688 “At a meting of the trustese of the free houllders and Comanallity of ye toune of Broockhauen the 3th of Suptember 1688 presant Thomas biggs Richard Wodhul Jacobloungbot[hum] Richard floyd John Jenner: where as thare is like to be a diffarance like to arise betwene the boundes of this tou[ne] and Mr Wintroupes bounes thare fore we dowe depout [deputize] Zacariah hakines and thomas Jenners to go down Sou[th] and to Run the line betwene him and this toune, and to be gin at the fresh pond att the weast side of the neack that is called Stares neack which we do houlld to be the boundes by ouer deed from the Indones and by ouer poseshon delliuered by the Shachom John J[enner C]” Source: Brookhaven (N.Y. : Town). Clerk. Records of the Town of Brookhaven, Book C: New York: Derrydale Press, 1931: p. 12.

77 The Glorious Revolution & Brookhaven Town Leisler’s Rebellion & The Leislerian State, As in the rest of the Dominion of New England ( ), Stuart officials’ attempted censorship of news of the Glorious Revolution in England backfired, proving their undoing, by fanning Protestant fears of an insidious Stuart-inspired international “Papist” (I.e., Catholic) conspiracy, in cahoots with a planned French or Spanish descent on the colony. News of Andros’ arrest and imprisonment in Boston reached L.I. In April. In New-York Colony, the Glorious Revolution began in Setauket, first village to declare for William & Mary, in May Brookhaven Town & Suffolk County quickly followed, as did much of the Province, as old denials and resentments boiled over. A day after Lt. Gov. Nicholson made an ill-considered remark, implying threat to burn New York City, the militia defected & seized Fort James on May 31 st. Captain Jacob Leisler, emerged as chief rebel, though his authority was shaky until June 8, when an invasion scare brought the local army to his side, and a Committee of Safety was created which confirmed him in authority. Nicholson fled to England. Leisler seriously lacked tolerance, basic tact, & diplomatic skill. Ruling with an arbitrary & heavy hand, he lost friends, imprisoned enemies, polarized the Colony. Setauket refused to recognize his Leisler’s authority. Suffolk, upstate N.Y., & the wealthy, influential, “Anglicizing” Dutch, played a more astute hand, & were successful in their lobbying London for his removal.

78 Seeing Conspiracies Everywhere Disarming the Indians -- May 7, 1689 “At a Towne meeting it was voted & unanimously agreed on, that the Indians should bee disarmed: and to surrender themselves upon demand, otherwise to be looked upon as Enimies; ten men weare [were] chosen to goe to ye south to disarm ym [them], and theire arms to bee left at Captn Woodhull’s.” Records. Town of Brookhaven, Up to Source: Brookhaven (N.Y.:Town). Clerk. Records. Town of Brookhaven, Up to Patchogue, NY: The Town, 1880: p. 73.

79 The Manor of St. George – North & South The Odyssey of William (“Tangier”) Smith, 1689, Pt. 3 Watching Your Manors, Or, by Rude Winds of Faction Blown The Manor of St. George – North & South 1689 Glorious Revolution The Smiths moved to their Little Neck estate in 1689, remaining on the Governor’s Council, and placed in command of the Suffolk Co. militia; just in time for the Glorious Revolution. Smith, a close associate of Charles II & James II, was in an awkward position, on the wrong side of Leisler’s Rebellion. May 22, 1689“Coll Smith shewed and declared his willingness to serve his Excellency Sr Edmond Andros… But hee living attZealtalkett,ware the people already shoocke off this government, fears iff hee should goe to Boston that the people in his town would rise and plunder his house, if not offer violence to his family.” Governor Edmund Andros of the Dominion of New England (which included New-York), was arrested in Boston, in early April. Rebellion spread to L.I. before the month ended. Andros managed to send a messenger to New York requesting a commission be sent to Boston to secure his release, naming William Smith as one of the commissioners. When the New-York Council met on May 22, 1689, “Coll Smith shewed and declared his willingness to serve his Excellency Sr Edmond Andros… But hee living att Zealtalkett, the middle of Long Island, ware the people already shoocke off this government, and taking him to be a papist or a fri[e]nd of them, fears iff hee should goe to Boston that the people in his town would rise and plunder his house, if not offer violence to his family.” Later, attacked by a New-York City mob, he decided to flee New-York. Source: Eberlein, Harold Donaldson. Manor Houses and Historic Homes of Long Island and Staten Island. Philadelphia; London: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1928: p. 96.

80 The Glorious Revolution & Brookhaven Town The Glorious Revolution & Brookhaven Town Quelling Leisler’s Rebellion, 1691 King William, himself Dutch, & needing colonial support for the war with France then raging in Europe & America, heeded their call, and appointed anti-Leislerian, Governor Sloughter, to their liking, polarizing the colony for yet another 20 years, though achieving William’s immediate ends Sloughter’s delay in arriving afforded Leisler new scope for effrontery, further exacerbating local tensions. Leisler’s arbitrary arrests of political opponents accelerated, providing the pretext for his rapid trial and execution, as usurper, after Sloughter’s arrival. Bitter political in-fighting & recrimination ensued. Still, William III, as Holland’s Prince of Orange & Stadtholder (not quite king), otherwise provided a welcome & useful compromise between Dutch & English New-York: being both Dutch royalty and married to a Stuart, the late King’s daughter, Mary. The new regime provided a new balance & status quo. Source: The Glorious Revolution in America.

81 The Manor of St. George -- North & South The Odyssey of William (“Tangier”) Smith, , Pt. 4 Watching Your Manors, Or, by Rude Winds of Faction Blown The Manor of St. George -- North & South March 25, 1691 reappointing Smith toProvincial Councilas one of the commissioners of oyer & terminer, who tried and convicted Leisler Smith’s fortunes took a decisive turn on March 25, 1691, 6 days after Gov. Slaughter arrived, reappointing Smith to the Provincial Council, & as one of the commissioners of oyer & terminer, who tried and convicted Leisler. For the rest of his life, Col. William Smith was a marked man, politically. (Leislerians viewed him as something of a regicide.) Leisler’s death polarized the colony, which divided into pro- & anti- Leislerian political factions. For the rest of his life, Col. William Smith was a marked man, politically. (Leislerians viewed him as something of a regicide.) On the frequent Provincial anti-Leislerian upswings, perks there were, but with pro-Leislerian swings, Smith’s life was made difficult. May 15, 1691Justice of Supreme Courtjudge/delegate to, Suffolk County prerogative court.Nov. 11, 1692Chief Justice of the Province’s Supreme Court On May 15, 1691, Smith was appointed Justice of New York Colony’s newly-created Supreme Court & a judge/delegate to, Suffolk County prerogative court. On Nov. 11, 1692, Smith was appointed the 2 nd Chief Justice of the Province’s Supreme Court by Gov. Fletcher, replacing Joseph Dudley & 1697,Gov. Fletchergranted William Smith patentsto large tracts of land in today’s southeastern Brookhaven Town, & expansion of his Little Neck holdings,Manor of St. George, In 1693 & 1697, Gov. Fletcher granted William Smith patents to large tracts of land in today’s southeastern Brookhaven Town, & expansion of his Little Neck holdings, all of which were erected into a manor -- the Manor of St. George, independent of Brookhaven Town, & having its own courts.


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