2Mercantile System & The Navigation Acts Oliver Cromwell & colonial trade1651 – Parliament adopted the Navigation ActRequired that all goods imported to England or the colonies be carried only on English ships and that the majority of each crew be English.World’s gold and silver fixedOne nation could gain wealth only at the expense of another – by seizing its gold and silver and dominating its trade. Led to the development and protection of shipping.1660 – Navigation ActShip’s crews must be ¾ English (not just a majority)Enumerated (products grown or extracted from the colonies) goods1663 – Navigation ActAll colonial imports from Europe to America stop first in England, be offloaded, and have duty paid on them before shipping to AmericaResultsEngland had a monopoly on tobacco and sugar from the Chesapeake and West Indies.Customs revenues increasedEnriched English shipbuildersAmerican colonies became more important to England’s economy
3Enforcing the Navigation Acts Enforcement of the Navigations Acts was spotty at bestCharles I – bureaucracy of colonial administratorsCharles II – Lords of Trade1670’s – Customs duties appeared in all coloniesSurveyor General – Edward Randolph1678 – Massachusetts legislature declared Navigation Acts had no legal standing in the colonies1684 – Lords of Trade won a court decision the annulled the charter of Massachusetts
4The Dominion of New England James II succeeded Charles IIJames II approved a proposal to create a Dominion of New England (all colonies south through New Jersey)Sir Edmund Andros appointed royal governor in 1686 in Boston.Rule reached from Massachusetts to Connecticut, Rhode Island and eventually New York and East & West Jersey.Andros’s presence and leadership led to great resentment in the colonies.Dominion of New England fell apart with England’s Glorious Revolution in 1688
5The Glorious Revolution in America James II fled to France and Protestant Mary Stuart & husband William III of Orange invited to assume the throne as joint monarchs.Colonist’s response to William & Mary’s arrival to the throneAndros and councilors were arrestedMassachusetts reverted to its former governmentLong term effects of the Glorious Revolution in AmericaBill of Rights & Act of Toleration – 1689James II overthrow set precedent for revolution against a monarch
6An Emerging Colonial System & Salutary Neglect Refinement of the Navigation Acts under William and MaryAct to Prevent Frauds and Abuses of 1696 – colonial governors required to enforce trade laws. Writs of assistanceLords Commissioners of Trades and Plantation (Board of Trade) – investigate enforcement of Navigation ActsSalutary Neglect1696 – 1725 – Board of Trade worked to enforce Navigation Acts and assert royal control. However, deaths and inconsistencies in leadership led to “a wise and salutary neglect” of the colonies.Relaxed policies towards the colonies gave them greater freedom to pursue their economic interests and consequently enabled them to pursue greater political independence
7Powers of the Governors Crown never vetoed acts of Parliament after 1707Colonial governors held absolute veto powersCrown could disallow colonial legislation on advice of the Board of TradeGovernor still had power to determine when and where it would meet, legislative sessions, and dissolve the assembly for new elections/postponement of electionsIn short, colonial governors could appoint and remove officials, command the militia and naval forces, and grant pardons.
8Powers of the Assemblies Members of the council were NOT appointed by an outside authority (i.e. crown/proprietor), they were elected officialsWomen, children, Native Americans, and African Americans were excluded from the political process – why?Early 18th century, the colonial assemblies held two important strands of power:Purse strings – right to vote on taxes and expendituresPower to initiate legislation“Self-government became first a habit then a “right.”