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The Imperial Perspective. o Oliver Cromwell & colonial trade o 1651 – Parliament adopted the Navigation Act Required that all goods imported to England.

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Presentation on theme: "The Imperial Perspective. o Oliver Cromwell & colonial trade o 1651 – Parliament adopted the Navigation Act Required that all goods imported to England."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Imperial Perspective

2 o Oliver Cromwell & colonial trade o 1651 – Parliament adopted the Navigation Act Required that all goods imported to England or the colonies be carried only on English ships and that the majority of each crew be English. o World’s gold and silver fixed One nation could gain wealth only at the expense of another – by seizing its gold and silver and dominating its trade. Led to the development and protection of shipping. o 1660 – Navigation Act Ship’s crews must be ¾ English (not just a majority) Enumerated (products grown or extracted from the colonies) goods o 1663 – Navigation Act All colonial imports from Europe to America stop first in England, be offloaded, and have duty paid on them before shipping to America o Results England had a monopoly on tobacco and sugar from the Chesapeake and West Indies. Customs revenues increased Enriched English shipbuilders American colonies became more important to England’s economy

3  Enforcement of the Navigations Acts was spotty at best  Charles I – bureaucracy of colonial administrators  Charles II – Lords of Trade  1670’s – Customs duties appeared in all colonies o Surveyor General – Edward Randolph o 1678 – Massachusetts legislature declared Navigation Acts had no legal standing in the colonies o 1684 – Lords of Trade won a court decision the annulled the charter of Massachusetts

4  James II succeeded Charles II o James II approved a proposal to create a Dominion of New England (all colonies south through New Jersey)  Sir Edmund Andros appointed royal governor in 1686 in Boston. o Rule reached from Massachusetts to Connecticut, Rhode Island and eventually New York and East & West Jersey.  Andros’s presence and leadership led to great resentment in the colonies.  Dominion of New England fell apart with England’s Glorious Revolution in 1688

5  James II fled to France and Protestant Mary Stuart & husband William III of Orange invited to assume the throne as joint monarchs.  Colonist’s response to William & Mary’s arrival to the throne o Andros and councilors were arrested o Massachusetts reverted to its former government  Long term effects of the Glorious Revolution in America o Bill of Rights & Act of Toleration – 1689 o James II overthrow set precedent for revolution against a monarch

6  Refinement of the Navigation Acts under William and Mary o Act to Prevent Frauds and Abuses of 1696 – colonial governors required to enforce trade laws. Writs of assistance o Lords Commissioners of Trades and Plantation (Board of Trade) – investigate enforcement of Navigation Acts  Salutary Neglect o 1696 – 1725 – Board of Trade worked to enforce Navigation Acts and assert royal control. However, deaths and inconsistencies in leadership led to “a wise and salutary neglect” of the colonies. o Relaxed policies towards the colonies gave them greater freedom to pursue their economic interests and consequently enabled them to pursue greater political independence

7  Crown never vetoed acts of Parliament after 1707 o Colonial governors held absolute veto powers  Crown could disallow colonial legislation on advice of the Board of Trade o Governor still had power to determine when and where it would meet, legislative sessions, and dissolve the assembly for new elections/postponement of elections  In short, colonial governors could appoint and remove officials, command the militia and naval forces, and grant pardons.

8  Members of the council were NOT appointed by an outside authority (i.e. crown/proprietor), they were elected officials  Women, children, Native Americans, and African Americans were excluded from the political process – why?  Early 18 th century, the colonial assemblies held two important strands of power: o Purse strings – right to vote on taxes and expenditures o Power to initiate legislation  “Self-government became first a habit then a “right.”


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