Presentation on theme: "The Imperial Perspective. o Oliver Cromwell & colonial trade o 1651 – Parliament adopted the Navigation Act Required that all goods imported to England."— Presentation transcript:
o Oliver Cromwell & colonial trade o 1651 – Parliament adopted the Navigation Act Required that all goods imported to England or the colonies be carried only on English ships and that the majority of each crew be English. o World’s gold and silver fixed One nation could gain wealth only at the expense of another – by seizing its gold and silver and dominating its trade. Led to the development and protection of shipping. o 1660 – Navigation Act Ship’s crews must be ¾ English (not just a majority) Enumerated (products grown or extracted from the colonies) goods o 1663 – Navigation Act All colonial imports from Europe to America stop first in England, be offloaded, and have duty paid on them before shipping to America o Results England had a monopoly on tobacco and sugar from the Chesapeake and West Indies. Customs revenues increased Enriched English shipbuilders American colonies became more important to England’s economy
Enforcement of the Navigations Acts was spotty at best Charles I – bureaucracy of colonial administrators Charles II – Lords of Trade 1670’s – Customs duties appeared in all colonies o Surveyor General – Edward Randolph o 1678 – Massachusetts legislature declared Navigation Acts had no legal standing in the colonies o 1684 – Lords of Trade won a court decision the annulled the charter of Massachusetts
James II succeeded Charles II o James II approved a proposal to create a Dominion of New England (all colonies south through New Jersey) Sir Edmund Andros appointed royal governor in 1686 in Boston. o Rule reached from Massachusetts to Connecticut, Rhode Island and eventually New York and East & West Jersey. Andros’s presence and leadership led to great resentment in the colonies. Dominion of New England fell apart with England’s Glorious Revolution in 1688
James II fled to France and Protestant Mary Stuart & husband William III of Orange invited to assume the throne as joint monarchs. Colonist’s response to William & Mary’s arrival to the throne o Andros and councilors were arrested o Massachusetts reverted to its former government Long term effects of the Glorious Revolution in America o Bill of Rights & Act of Toleration – 1689 o James II overthrow set precedent for revolution against a monarch
Refinement of the Navigation Acts under William and Mary o Act to Prevent Frauds and Abuses of 1696 – colonial governors required to enforce trade laws. Writs of assistance o Lords Commissioners of Trades and Plantation (Board of Trade) – investigate enforcement of Navigation Acts Salutary Neglect o 1696 – 1725 – Board of Trade worked to enforce Navigation Acts and assert royal control. However, deaths and inconsistencies in leadership led to “a wise and salutary neglect” of the colonies. o Relaxed policies towards the colonies gave them greater freedom to pursue their economic interests and consequently enabled them to pursue greater political independence
Crown never vetoed acts of Parliament after 1707 o Colonial governors held absolute veto powers Crown could disallow colonial legislation on advice of the Board of Trade o Governor still had power to determine when and where it would meet, legislative sessions, and dissolve the assembly for new elections/postponement of elections In short, colonial governors could appoint and remove officials, command the militia and naval forces, and grant pardons.
Members of the council were NOT appointed by an outside authority (i.e. crown/proprietor), they were elected officials Women, children, Native Americans, and African Americans were excluded from the political process – why? Early 18 th century, the colonial assemblies held two important strands of power: o Purse strings – right to vote on taxes and expenditures o Power to initiate legislation “Self-government became first a habit then a “right.”