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The Ancient Hebrews and the Origins of Judaism

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1 The Ancient Hebrews and the Origins of Judaism
Chapter 11

2 Hebrew Civilization: Developed gradually after 1800 B.C.E. Flourished until 70 C.E. Founders of Judaism Torah: Sacred text Origins and basic laws recorded Translation = “God’s teaching” Consists of the first five books of the Hebrew bible

3 The Early History of the Hebrews:
Abraham Lived in Ur (Mesopotamia) Migrated to Canaan around 1950B.C.E. Why did the Hebrews move to Egypt? When did the Hebrews move? What was their life like in Egypt?

4 Exodus (x-uh-duhs): Moses led the escape from Egypt (Exodus) Wandered the desert for 40 years Returned to Canaan. Kingdom of Israel 1000 B.C.E. King David One united kingdom, central government King Solomon (son of David) Built magnificent temple in Jerusalem

5 Important Hebrew Leaders:
Abraham: “father of the Hebrews”, introduced belief of a single God Moses: greatest leader of the Hebrews, led his people out of slavery, gave Judaism the Ten Commandments David: created a united kingdom, established Jerusalem as a holy city Solomon: built Jerusalem’s first great temple

6 The Life of Abraham: Father of the Hebrews
Abraham’s Covenant with God - the Torah says God: Told him to leave Ur and go to Canaan Promised to favor & protect Abraham and his descendants Changed his name from Abram to Abraham (what he is known as today) Promised Land of Canaan to Abraham’s people

7 Abraham’s Sacrifice: According to Torah, God tested Abraham:
Told him to sacrifice his son Isaac Sent an angel to stop sacrifice Renewed His promise to Abraham Jacob (grandson of Abraham, son of Issac) Hebrews flourished into 12 Tribes of Israel – all descendants of Jacob

8 The Life of Moses: Leader and Prophet:
1250 B.C.E. – large group of Abraham’s descendants living in Egypt Why did the Pharaoh turn them into slaves? God punished Egypt w/ 10 plagues Pharaoh gave in, Moses led people out of Egypt Pharaoh changed his mind and gave chase; but soldiers drowned in Red Sea and Moses and his people escaped

9 Ten Commandments: At Mount Sinai: God gave Moses the Ten Commandments
Spelled out the Hebrews’ duties to God Laid down basic moral laws By obeying the commandments Hebrews would fulfill their part of the covenant with God In turn, God would protect the Hebrews

10 The Life of David: King of Israel
Defeated Philistines & other enemies United two parts of Hebrew land (Israel & Judah into one kingdom called Israel) Formed strong central government Gave Israel its own army, courts, officials Served as nation’s chief priest Chose Jerusalem as the capital Brought Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem Jerusalem became a holy city

11 Solomon: Builds the Great Temple of Jerusalem
Housed the Ark of the Covenant To be center of Jewish worship Forced his people to work on construction Taxed his people heavily Northern tribes broke away, became separate kingdom of Israel Solomon & descendants rule southern kingdom of Judah

12 Questions: Topic Sentence: Restate question
When did the Jewish civilization develop, and where was it located? Which religion was founded by the Israelites? What is the Torah, and what information does it record? When people are reading from the Torah, what are they reading from? How does the Torah say that Abraham first came to the land of Canaan? What did David provide for the Jewish people that they did not have before? Judaism began with a covenant, according to the Torah. What does that mean? The word exodus means departure. In the history of the Israelites what does Exodus mean? When studying the history of Judaism, what is significant about Abraham, Moses, David and Solomon? Topic Sentence: Restate question Support: Focus on only ideas that support your topic statement Conclusion: Reconfirm your restatement

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