Presentation on theme: "The Hebrews and Judaism The Early Hebrews. Abraham and Moses Lead the People Sometime around 2000 and 1500BC, ancestors of the ancient Israelites, the."— Presentation transcript:
Abraham and Moses Lead the People Sometime around 2000 and 1500BC, ancestors of the ancient Israelites, the Hebrews appear in southwest Asia. Though simple herders, they will develop a culture that will be a major influence on later civilizations.
Abraham and Moses Most of what we know comes from archeologists and from written accounts from Hebrew scribes. They describe the history of the Jews and the laws of Judaism. These writings will form the Hebrew Bible – much the same as Christians Old Testament.
The Beginnings in Canaan and Egypt The Hebrew Bible traces their history back to Abraham. Abraham was told by God to leave his home and go on a long journey to a new land where his ancestors would form a great nation.
Canaan and Egypt Abraham settled in the land by the Mediterranean. Some of his descendants lived in Canaan for many years. Later, they would move to Egypt – possibly due to famine or some other disaster.
Canaan and Egypt The Israelites lived well in Egypt and their population grew. The growth worried the Pharaoh. He thought they would become strong and a threat to his rule. To combat this, he made them slaves.
The Exodus Moses will appear in Israel in 1200 BC. We are familiar with the story of Moses who was born a slave but raised as an Egyptian. Later he would, through God’s will and plagues, convince the Pharaoh to free them. This to the Israelites, proved they were loved and protected by God.
The Exodus The Exodus was a major event in Hebrew history and others recognize this as well. It has served as hope to enslaved people around the world throughout history – Harriet Tubman comes to mind – and Moses as the model of faithfulness.
Ten Commandments For years, they would wander through the desert. During this time, Moses would go up Mt. Sinai and receive the 10 Commandments on two stone tablets. The 10 commandments would form the framework for how the Israelites should live their lives.
The Return to Canaan Eventually, the Israelites reach the land of Canaan, but Moses can not enter. They must fight the people that were there to take control. After they conquered the land, the Israelites would begin to build their society.
Return to Canaan In Canaan, the Israelites lived in small, scattered communities with no central government. Each community selected judges to lead, enforce laws and settle disputes. As time goes on, there would be need for stronger leaders.
Kings Unite the Israelites In the mid 1000’s BC, the Philistines would invade the Israelites. Israelites banded together under one king, Saul, to lead them in battle. He was adequate as a military leader, but not popular or effective as a ruler who never gained the support of tribal or religious leaders.
King David David would follow Saul as king. He was a shepherd as a boy, but would go on to fight and slay the giant Philistine, Goliath. This would gain favor with the king. David was admired for his military ability and skills of a poet, writing many of the Psalms.
King David David lived in the desert for many years gathering support that would make him king when Saul died. David was well loved by the people and the full support of the leaders. He defeated the Philistines and fought and defeated many others in war. He established the capital in Jerusalem.
King Solomon Solomon, son of David, took the throne on 965 BC. He expanded the kingdom and made allies of Egypt and Phoenicia. Trade with allies made Israel rich and with the riches, Solomon would build a great temple which would be the center of their religious life and symbol of the faith.
Invaders Conquer and Rule After Solomon’s death, revolts broke out as to who would rule. Israel would split into two kingdoms – Israel and Judah. The people of Judah would become known as Jews. Both kingdoms would last a couple of centuries. In 722 BC, Israel would fall to the Assyrians and years later Judah was defeated by the Chaldeans.
Dispersal of the Jews The Chaldeans captured Jerusalem and destroyed the temple in 565 BC. They marched the Jews to Babylon to work as slaves. This became known as the time Babylonian Captivity and lasted 50 years.
Diaspora In 530 BC., the Persians conquered the Chaldeans and sent the Jews home. Some did not go, but went to other areas of the Persian Empire. Scholars call the dispersal of the Jews outside of Israel or Judah and the Diaspora. The rest of the Jews returned to Jerusalem and rebuilt the temple. They remained under Persian rule until 330 BC.
Independence and Conquest Tired of foreign rule, the Maccabees will lead a successful revolt in 160 BC. For about 100 years, the Jews would rule their own kingdom. The Romans would conquer the region in 63 BC.
Roman Rule Jewish leaders did add to the temple during Roman rule, however, life was rough with heavy taxes and conquerors that had no respect for Jewish religion or traditions. Some rulers tried to force the Jews to worship Roman Emperors and appointed high priests as leaders of the temple – this would lead the Jews to rebel.
Women in Israelite Society As in most of the societies we have studied, women were second to men in society. Men made the decisions and fathers chose a girls husband, although they could not be forced into marriage. Males were the heirs in inheritance and were expected to provide for all in the family.
Women in Israelite Society Some Jewish women did contribute greatly to society. Military and political leaders like Queen Esther and the Judge Deborah saved and protected the people. Others were spiritual leaders like Miriam, sister of Moses. Some would serve as the example of how a Jewish woman should behave, such as Ruth.
And So … Exit: How did dispersal of the Jews impact world history? Stay tuned next time for Jewish Beliefs and Texts.