Presentation on theme: "1 IFC Session 5 Mulder If Clauses. 2 IFC Session 5 Mulder Type 0 Used for facts, generalisations and timeless statements. Normally present tense in the."— Presentation transcript:
1 IFC Session 5 Mulder If Clauses
2 IFC Session 5 Mulder Type 0 Used for facts, generalisations and timeless statements. Normally present tense in the main clause and the if clause: If you melt ice, you get water. If you want to succeed, you must work hard.
3 IFC Session 5 Mulder Type 1 Used for realistic situations in which the speaker thinks that it is possible that the conditions can be fulfilled: If the baby wakes him up, he will be very unhappy. If she hasn’t had any breakfast before she comes, she’ll get very hungry.
4 IFC Session 5 Mulder Note that we normally stick to the use of the present in the if clause and the will-future in the main clause. It is possible to use other tenses though. Compare: If she doesn’t have breakfast before she comes, she’ll be hungry. If she hasn’t had breakfast before she comes, she’ll be very hungry.
5 IFC Session 5 Mulder Type 2 Used for unreal or hypothetical situations where the speaker doesn’t think the conditions will be fulfilled. We use the past form in the if clause, and would + verb in the main clause: If he was more motivated, he would have better chances of promotion.
6 IFC Session 5 Mulder Type 3 Used for situations where the conditions were not fulfilled in the past. It is therefore impossible for the situation to change. If I had known he was a gambler, I wouldn’t have married him.
7 IFC Session 5 Mulder Mixed Conditionals Note that we can combine conditionals depending on whether the conditions are still unfulfilled up until the moment of speaking. Compare: If you had brought the umbrella (you didn’t bring it), we wouldn’t be wet now. If you had brought the umbrella, we wouldn’t have got wet. (You didn’t bring it and we got wet)
8 IFC Session 5 Mulder Note that we often use should to talk about future situations. In this construction we can use type 1 and type 2 conditionals: If you should forget the PIN number, we will provide you with another. If such problems should occur, we would tackle them directly.
9 IFC Session 5 Mulder Exceptions It is possible to use “will” and “would” in the if clause, but only in exceptions: If you would be so kind as to consider me, I would be grateful. (polite form) If you won’t do the washing up, then I won’t do the ironing! (willingness & refusal)
10 IFC Session 5 Mulder The Imperative can be used instead of the “will” clause in the First Conditional Get her toy if you want her to stop crying. If you don’t like the music, turn it off.
11 IFC Session 5 Mulder Compare the following: If you pull a cat’s tail, it screams. If you pull my cat’s tail, she will scream. If you pulled my cat’s tail, she would scream. If you had pulled my cat’s tail, she would have screamed.
12 IFC Session 5 Mulder Complete the Following If we _________(come) late, we _________ (apologize). I _________ (have) a drink, if you _________ (offer) me one. If I _________ (win) the lottery, I _________ (buy) a car. If you _________ (touch) snow, it _________ (melt)
13 IFC Session 5 Mulder Related Structures Wish Sentences / If only Used to express regret that something is not the case Tenses used are generally those of the 2 nd conditional To talk about the present: I wish I knew the telephone number. (I wish + simple past) To talk about the future: I wish I wasn’t writing the Linguistics Mid Term tonight. (simple past – didn’t have to past progressive – wasn’t writing)
14 IFC Session 5 Mulder To talk about the past: I wish I had listened more in class. (past perfect) To talk about hypothetical situations: I wish I was rich. I wish they would call me back. If only: Can replace I wish, making the sentence more emphatic.
15 IFC Session 5 Mulder Note that wish + would can only be used with dynamic verbs and if the subjects of the verbs are different I wish I could speak to them (NOT I wish I would…) I wish he would speak to them. I wish he liked dogs. (Not I wish he would like dogs)
16 IFC Session 5 Mulder It’s (high) time, I’d rather, I’d prefer Can be followed by a past tense of an infinitive It’s (high) time Past: It’s high time we drank up and left. (more emphatic, something overdue) Infinitive : It’s time to drink up now, ladies and gents. It’s time for Sally to decide what she wants to do.
17 IFC Session 5 Mulder I’d rather Past: I’d rather he did it for me. I’d rather my mom had told me earlier. Infinitive: I’d rather do it myself (subject same) *Only possible if the subject is the same.
18 IFC Session 5 Mulder I’d prefer Past: I’d prefer it if you stayed. I’d have preferred it if I could have eaten more pizza. Infinitive: I’d prefer to watch television. I’d prefer for him to swim tomorrow.