Presentation on theme: "Unit Three Foreign Language Learning. Lead-in: 1.Are you good at English? What is the most difficult part of studying English -pronunciation, grammar,"— Presentation transcript:
Lead-in: 1.Are you good at English? What is the most difficult part of studying English -pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary or something else? 2. Do you think English has always stayed the same? Give some examples.
Language is the major means of human communication. Language changes as time,eg, we have Old English, Middle English, and,Modern English.New words come into use,eg,e- mail,internet,IT. Old words are forgotten.People pronounce words in difference ways.Even grammar changes. Warm up
–The act, or an example, of substituting a mild, indirect, or vague term for one considered harsh, blunt, or offensive Examples –in the family way, pass away Euphemism
e.g. ： die----- pass away, pass out, pass over become fat----- put on weight
About Death To go to a better world To go to another world To go to heaven To depart To be gone To pay one’s debt to nature To breathe one’s last Troubles be over now
英语中上厕所的婉约语 To wash one’s hand, to powder one’s nose, to spend a penny, to go and see one’s aunt, to pay a call, to relieve or to relieve nature, to go somewhere, to answer the call of nature or to answer nature’s call, to have a BM (=bowel movement) Will you excuse me for a few minutes? May I be excused?
英语国家中 对于身材、长像的委婉语 Skinny--- slim, slender Ugly--- plain-looking Crippled, blind, deaf, dumb--- the handicapped or disabled
Old man or old woman--- senior citizens Old---- elderly, advanced in age
shoe-maker, garbage man, undertaker, dishwasher, washwoman, dog catchers, bus boys
Poor people---- low-income group Slums--- old, more crowded areas Depression--- recession Poor children--- children unable to secure much beyond the necessities of today’s world because of the modest finances of the family Poor, or even lazy students--- children with untapped potential
*language and sexual discrimination: male (unmarked)female (marked) princeprincess actoractress stewardstewardess heroheroine poetpoetess heirheiress hosthostess countcountess
*more examples for sexual discrimination in language: chairmanchairperson spokesmanspokesperson policemanpolice (public safety officer) congressman salesman milkman postmanpostal worker firemanfire-fighter freshman freshperson manmadesynthetic
Look at the pictures and guess what each speaker says in the situation. Why do you think so? 1. Today’s trend is to use “server” instead of “waitress”, though “waitress” is still used. 2.Be quiet! 3. Goodbye, Mary! 4. Look at my new apartment. It’s nice, isn’t it?
Skim the text and answer the following questions. 1. Which paragraphs give examples of English expressions that might cause gender discrimination( 性别歧视） A, B, C
2. What kind of words are avoided now? 3. What other issues are touched upon by the trend to use English properly? Words that put much emphasis on gender are carefully avoided. Issues such as race and disabilities are also touched upon.
Read the text and fill out the table below Traditional Terms Preferred Terms Reasons for the Change Terms relating to gender To make language respectful to people of Terms relating to issues other than gender To make language more respectful to waitress stewardess policeman chairman the handicapped Server Flight attendant Police officer chairperson People with a disability both genders all
Why does English change over time? Because of cultural communication. cultural communication.
What do you think of the relationship between language and culture? Language to a country is what blood to a human. Language and culture are interdependent and have influence on each other. Idea sharing: 返回