2 8:1 Culture, Ethnicity and Race Health care workers work with and provide care to many different peopleRespect the individuality of each personBe aware of factors that cause each person to be uniqueUniqueness is influenced by many things including:Physical characteristics, family life, social status, religion, education, occupation, life experiencesMajor influence is cultural/ethnic heritageUniqueness influenced by many things including:- Physical characteristics, family life, social status, religion, education, occupation, life experiences
3 CultureDefinition: Values, beliefs, attitudes, language, symbols, rituals, behaviors, and customs unique to a particular group of peopleInfluences our family relations, education, occupational choices, social interactions, spirituality, food preferences, health beliefsPassed from one generation to nextFoundation of behavior, but variancesOften defined as a set of rulesCulture provides individual with design for livingNot uniform among all members within a cultural group, but does provide a foundation for behavior
4 Culture – Four basic characteristics Culture is learned - culture is taught to others, children learn patterns of behavior by imitating adultsCulture is shared - common practices and beliefs are shared with othersSocial in nature - individuals understand appropriate behavior based on traditions that have been passed from generation to generationDynamic and constantly changing - allows a cultural group to meet the needs of the group by adapting to environmental changesLearned – culture is taught to others, children learn patterns of behavior by imitating adultsShared – common practices and beliefs are shared with othersSocial – individuals understand appropriate behavior based on traditions that have been passed from generation to generationDynamic – new ideas may generate different standards for behavior, allows a cultural group to meet the needs of the group by adapting to environmental changes
5 EthnicityDefinition: Classification of people based on national origin and/or cultureShare common heritage, national origin, social customs, language, and beliefsCommon ethnic groups in US:African American, Asian American, European American, Hispanic American, Arabic American, Native AmericanSubgroups within larger ethnic groupsNot all members of an ethnic group practice all of the beliefs of the group, the individual is still influenced by other members of the groupSubgroups have own lifestyle and beliefsExample: European American includes Italian and German, two very different cultures
6 RaceDefinition: Classification of people based on physical or biological factorsColor of skin, hair, and eyesFacial featuresBlood typesBone structureRace cuts across multiple ethnic/cultural groups- Different races present in most ethnic groups
7 Cultural DiversityDifferences among people resulting from cultural, ethnic, and racial factorsThese differences influence a person’s behaviorDifferences exist within ethnic/cultural groupsUnited States called a “melting pot,” or is it more accurately a “salad bowl”?culture, ethnicity and race do influence an individual’s behavior, self-perception, judgment of others and interpersonal relationships- Melting pot – term used to represent the absorption of many cultures into the dominant cultureProcess known as Cultural AssimilationRequires that the newly arrived cultural group discard unique beliefs and behaviors and adopt the ways of the dominant cultureSalad Bowl – cultural differences are appreciated and respectedSimultaneous existence of various ethnic/cultural groupsA multicultural society that recognizes and respects many different beliefs
8 AcculturationDefinition: Process of learning the beliefs and behaviors of a dominant culture and assuming some of the characteristicsEvery individual has unique blend of characteristicsNeed to develop sensitivity to differencesOccurs slowly over a long periodRecent immigrants to the US are more likely to use the language and follow the patterns of behavior of the country from which they emigrated2nd and 3rd generation Americans are more likely to use English as main language
9 8:2 Bias, Prejudice, and Stereotyping Bias: preference that inhibits impartial judgmentExamples of common biases: age, education, physical, sexual preferencePrejudice: strong feelings or beliefs about a person or subject; pre-judging others without reviewing facts or information; often based on fearStereotyping: making the assumption that everyone in a group is the sameBias – age, education, physical, sexual preferencePrejudice – pre-judge, ppl who are prejudiced believe their behavior is rihgt and other’s ideas are wrong, afraid of things that are different, in HC, need to learn about lots of diff ppl and cultures to ensure understanding of the patient and communicate successfullyStereotyping – ignotes individual characteristcs and labels individuals
10 Bias, Prejudice, and Stereotyping Creates barriers to effective relationshipsHealth care workers must be aware and avoid these feelings and assumptionsWays to avoid bias, prejudice, and stereotyping:Be aware of own personal/professional beliefsObtain info about other ethnic and culture groupsBe sensitive to behaviors and practices of othersRespect others’ beliefs, but you don’t have to adoptAvoid offensive jokesApologize if you hurt someone’s feelings. Forgive if someone hurts you.
11 8:3 Understanding Cultural Diversity Cultural and ethnic beliefs will affect behaviorHealth care workers must be aware of these beliefs to provide holistic careMeets needs of whole person, body and mindRespect language, personal space, touching, eye contact, gestures, health care belief, spirituality, etc.See Table 8-1 in text (pg 201 – 202)
12 Family OrganizationStructure of a family must be identified, especially the dominant or decision-making personFamily structure may be different due to culture & ethnicityNuclear – mother, father, childrenExtended – nuclear + grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins
13 Family OrganizationPatriarchal Family – father (or oldest male) is authority figureMatriarchal Family – mother (or oldest female) is authority figureRecognition and acceptance of family organization is essential for health care providersTalk with patient and ask questions to determine who is the decision maker.Be ready to hear a patient say, “I have to check with my spouse before I make a decision.”13
14 Family OrganizationTo determine patient’s family structure and learn about patient’s preferences, ask questions.Who are the members of your family?Do you have any children? Who will care for them while you are sick?Do you have an extended family?Who will be caring for you while you are sick?Who is the head of the household?Where do you and your family live?Do you have family members who will be visiting?
15 Language Language and communication is an integral part of heath care Be ready to communicate with patients who speak another languageTry to find an interpreter if necessarySpeak slowly, use simple words, gestures or picturesDo not just speak louderSome states require the medical permit be printed in the patient’s language.Be aware of legal requirements for non-English speaking patients
16 8:4 Respect Cultural Diversity Regard each individual as uniqueEveryone adopts beliefs and forms a pattern of behavior based on culture, ethnicity, race, life experiences, spirituality, and religionInherent, but may alter with experiencesHealth care workers must be aware and respect differences