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Elliott, Kratochwill, Littlefield Cook, and Travers, Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning, Third Edition. Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The DUPE Model Figure 8.2 D – Define the nature of the problem. U – Understand the nature of the problem. P – Plan your solution. Select appropriate strategies. E – Evaluate your plan for its suitability and success. 41
Elliott, Kratochwill, Littlefield Cook, and Travers, Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning, Third Edition. Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Using Bloom’s Taxonomy Table 8.1 Knowledge—recalling specific facts Comprehension—understanding what is communicated Application—generalizing and using abstract information Analysis—dividing a problem into subparts Synthesis—putting together parts to form a whole Evaluation—using criteria to make judgments When did the Civil War begin? When was the Civil War completed? Who was president of the Confederacy during the Civil War? Why would Americans want to fight against each other? Can you give me a brief summary of the Civil War in your own words? Why did the North want to keep a large army around Washington? Where would you put the Southern cities on this map? Can you think of several causes of the Civil War? What were the main features of the Battle of Gettysburg? Why do you think Lee surrendered at Appomatox? Could you write a few sentences describing Lee’s personality? Many people criticize Grant for losing so many men. Do you think Lincoln made the right decision in putting him in charge of the Union armies? Do you think Lincoln made a mistake in leaving McClellan as head of the Army of the Potomac for so long? Level of Thinking Sample Questions 42
Elliott, Kratochwill, Littlefield Cook, and Travers, Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning, Third Edition. Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Dos and Don’ts of Effective Questioning Table Match questions to objectives. Use a variety of question levels and types. 2. Ask many questions throughout the lesson. 3. Ask a question, pause, and then call on a student by name to respond. 4. Ensure that all students get equal opportunities to successfully answer questions. 5. Follow up lower-order, inaccurate, and incomplete answers. 6. Write questions, especially critical questions, into your lesson plan. 7. Keep questions clear, brief, and to the point. 8. Ask questions to keep students engaged. 9. Write the objectives and summary of the lesson as questions. 10. Match nonverbal behavior with the questions you ask. 1. Emphasize only lower-order or convergent questions. 2. Use questions mainly to review at the end of the lesson. 3. Allow callouts or fail to include pauses after your questions. 4. Rely on volunteers. 5. Overlook or allow to go uncorrected inappropriate or incomplete answers. 6. Rely solely on your ability to generate spontaneous questions during interaction. 7. Use long questions or ask multiple questions simultaneously. 8. Ask questions as a punitive, disciplinary tool. 9. Use questions only on major points. 10. Show disinterest in asking questions or in students’ responses. Source: Cruickshank, D., Bainer, D., & Metcalf, K. (1995). The act of teaching, New York: McGraw-Hill. Do Don’t 43
Elliott, Kratochwill, Littlefield Cook, and Travers, Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning, Third Edition. Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Four Learning Strategies l The Structuring Strategy l The Context Strategy l Instantiation l Multiple Coding 44
Elliott, Kratochwill, Littlefield Cook, and Travers, Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning, Third Edition. Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Common Characteristics of Creativity Table 8.5 Tolerance of ambiguity Flexible Original Intelligent Independent Synthesize Perseverance Insightful Visualize Fluent Sensitive Imaginative Connected Resilient Intuitive Self-critical Risk-taker Knowledgeable Analytical Curious Focused 45
Elliott, Kratochwill, Littlefield Cook, and Travers, Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning, Third Edition. Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Teaching for Transfer l Teach to overlearn. l Be certain that the material taught is well organized. l Use advance organizers if possible. l Emphasize the similarity between classroom work and the transfer situation. l Specify what’s important in the task. l Try to understand how students perceive the possibility of transfer. 46
Elliott, Kratochwill, Littlefield Cook, and Travers, Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning, Third Edition. Copyright © 2000 The.
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