2 What is Learning? What is Learned? Learning - a relatively permanent change in human capabilities that is not a result of growth processes.These capabilities are related to specific learning outcomes.
4 Social Learning Theory Information Processing Theory Learning TheoriesReinforcement TheorySocial Learning TheoryGoal TheoriesNeed TheoriesExpectancy TheoryAdult Learning TheoryInformation Processing Theory
5 Learning Theories (cont.) Reinforcement theory - emphasizes that people are motivated to perform or avoid certain behaviors because of past outcomes that have resulted from those behaviors.Several processes in reinforcement theory are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, extinction, and punishment.
6 Learning Theories (cont.) Reinforcement theoryThe trainer needs to identify what outcomes the learner finds most positive and negative.Trainers then need to link these outcomes to learners acquiring knowledge, skills, or changing behaviors.Trainers can withhold or provide job-related, personal, and career-related benefits to learners who master program content.
8 Learning Theories (cont.) Social learning theory - emphasizes that people learn by observing other persons (models) whom they believe are credible and knowledgeable.The theory recognizes that behavior that is reinforced or rewarded tends to be repeated.
9 Learning Theories (cont.) Social learning theoryLearning new skills or behavior comes from:directly experiencing the consequences of using a behavior or skill, orthe process of observing others and seeing the consequences of their behavior.
10 Learning Theories (cont.) Social learning theoryLearning is also influenced by a person’s self-efficacy, which is a person’s judgment about whether he or she can successfully learn knowledge and skills.A person’s self-efficacy can be increased using several methods: verbal persuasion, logical verification, observation of others (modeling), and past accomplishments.
11 Figure 4.1 - Processes of Social Learning Theory
12 Learning Theories (cont.) Goal theoriesGoal setting theory - assumes that behavior results from a person’s conscious goals and intentions.Goals influence a person’s behavior by:directing energy and attention.sustaining effort over time.motivating the person to develop strategies for goal attainment.
13 Learning Theories (cont.) Goal theoriesGoal setting theoryIt is used in training program design.It suggests that learning can be facilitated by providing trainees with specific challenging goals and objectives.The influence of goal setting theory can be seen in the development of training lesson plans.
14 Learning Theories (cont.) Goal theoriesGoal orientation - the goals held by a trainee in a learning situation.It includes learning and performance orientation.Learning orientation - trying to increase ability or competence in a task.Performance orientation - learners who focus on task performance and how they compare to others.
15 Learning Theories (cont.) Goal theoriesGoal orientationIt affects the amount of effort a trainee will expend in learning (motivation to learn).Learners with a high learning orientation will direct greater attention to the task and learn for the sake of learning in comparison to learners with a performance orientation.Learners with a performance orientation will direct more attention to performing well and less effort to learning.
16 Learning Theories (cont.) Need theoriesHelps to explain the value that a person places on certain outcomes.Need - a deficiency that a person is experiencing at any point in time.Maslow’s and Alderfer’s need theories focused on physiological needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs.
17 Learning Theories (cont.) Need theoriesThe major difference between Alderfer’s and Maslow’s hierarchies of needs is that Alderfer allows the possibility that if higher-level needs are not satisfied, employees will refocus on lower-level needs.McClelland’s need theory focused primarily on needs for achievement, affiliation, and power.
18 Learning Theories (cont.) Need theoriesSuggest that to motivate learning, trainers should identify trainees’ needs and communicate how training program content relates to fulfilling these needs.If certain basic needs of trainees are not met, they are unlikely to be motivated to learn.
19 Learning Theories (cont.) Expectancy theoryIt suggests that a person’s behavior is based on three factors:Expectancies - the link between trying to perform a behavior and actually performing well.Instrumentality - a belief that performing a given behavior is associated with a particular outcome.Valence - the value that a person places on an outcome.
21 Table 4.3 - Implications of Adult Learning Theory for Training
22 Learning Theories (cont.) Information processing theoryIt gives more emphasis to the internal processes that occur when training content is learned and retained.It highlights how external events influence learning, which include:Changes in the intensity or frequency of the stimulus that affect attention.Informing the learner of the objectives to establish an expectation.Enhancing perceptual features of the material (stimulus), drawing the attention of the learner to certain features.
23 Learning Theories (cont.) Information processing theoryIt highlights how external events influence learning, which include:Verbal instructions, pictures, diagrams, and maps suggesting ways to code the training content so that it can be stored in memory.Meaningful learning context (examples, problems) creating cues that facilitate coding.Demonstration or verbal instructions helping to organize the learner’s response as well as facilitating the selection of the correct response.
24 Figure 4.3 – A Model of Human Information Processing
25 Table 4.4- The Relationship among Learning Processes, Instructional Events, and Forms of Instruction
26 The Learning Process The learning cycle involves four stages: Concrete experienceReflective observationAbstract conceptualizationActive experimentation
28 The Learning Process (cont.) Age influences on learningTrainers need to be aware of trainees’ ages to create a learning environment and develop materials that meet their preferences.According to some trainers, there are four generations of employees with distinct attitudes toward work and preferred ways to learn—Millenniums (or nexters), Gen Xers, baby boomers, and traditionalists.
29 The Learning Process (cont.) Instruction - trainer’s manipulation of the environment in order to help trainees learn.The training context - the physical, intellectual, and emotional environment in which training occurs.Practice - physical or mental rehearsal of a task, knowledge, or skill to achieve proficiency in performing the task or skill or demonstrating the knowledge.
30 Table 4.6 - Features of Good Instruction That Facilitate Learning
31 Table 4.8 - Characteristics of Good Training Objectives
32 The Learning Process (cont.) Metacognition - individual control over one’s thinking.Two ways that individuals engage in metacognition are monitoring and control.Advance organizers - outlines, texts, diagrams, and graphs that help trainees organize the information that will be presented and practiced.
33 The Learning Process (cont.) Overlearning - Continuing to practice even after being able to perform the objective several times.Error management training - giving trainees opportunities to make errors during training; provides the opportunity for trainees to engage in metacognition.
34 The Learning Process (cont.) Practice can be massed, spaced, in whole, or in part.It must be related to the training objectives.Feedback is information about how well people are meeting the training objectives, and should be provided as soon as possible after the trainees’ behavior.
35 The Learning Process (cont.) Employees learn through observation, experience, and interacting with others.Communities of practice - groups of employees who work together, learn from each other, and develop a common understanding of how to get work accomplished.
36 Table 4.11 - Internal and External Conditions Necessary for Learning Outcomes
37 Table 4.12 - Details to Consider When Evaluating a Training Room