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T HE W ONDERFUL W ORLD OF APA An Introduction to the American Psychological Association’s Style of Citation Adapted from Medicine Hat College Library Services.

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Presentation on theme: "T HE W ONDERFUL W ORLD OF APA An Introduction to the American Psychological Association’s Style of Citation Adapted from Medicine Hat College Library Services."— Presentation transcript:

1 T HE W ONDERFUL W ORLD OF APA An Introduction to the American Psychological Association’s Style of Citation Adapted from Medicine Hat College Library Services

2 W HY USE APA? It will help you to: Organize your ideas. Communicate more effectively with your audience. Develop consistent documentation/writing style. Avoid issues regarding plagiarism.

3 P LAGIARISM What is it? It is intellectual theft – the conveyance of another person’s ideas or words as your own. Includes: art, lyrics, music, photography, programming, research material (graphics and statistics) Consequences? Failure of assignment or class. Removal from program or institution. How can I avoid it? Take accurate and complete notes. Cite all borrowed information. Use quotation marks around borrowed phrases and words. What is Plagiarism?

4 B ASIC R ULES (P T. 1) Use standard 8.5 x 11 inch good quality white paper. Font Style: 12-pt Times Roman Double space throughout the paper. Use a 1 in. (2.54 cm) margins on all sides of each page. Left justify your margins Indent the first line of every paragraph five– seven spaces (½ in. [standard key]). 2 spaces following the conclusion of a sentence. 1 space after other punctuation marks.

5 B ASIC R ULES (P T. 2) Paper is single sided. All pages are numbered and have a running head. Visuals may include graphs, photographs, tables, etc. Clearly label each visual with a title that concisely describes its subject. In the text of your paper refer to the visual by the title.

6 B ASIC R ULES (P T. 3) There is an order to the paper: 1. Title page 2. Abstract 3. Text 4. References 5. Footnotes 6. Tables 7. Figures 8. Appendices

7 H EADINGS Used to organize the content of a paper. Provides a visual cue to the reader – allows them to recognize the idea(s) that are to follow. The 5 headings: 1” Margin Centered, Bold, Title Case Heading [Level 1] Flush Left, Bold, Title Case Heading [Level 2] Indented, bold, sentence case, paragraph heading ending with a period..... [Level 3] 1” Margin Indented, bold, italicized, sentence case, paragraph heading ending with a period..... [Level 4] Indented, italicized, sentence case, paragraph heading ending with a period..... [Level 5]

8 C ITING M ATERIAL Two major components: In-text/parenthetical citation Placed in narrative of paper (when information is borrowed) Directs reader to “References” page “References” page citation (bibliographic information) Contains the detailed bibliographic information about borrowed source material Allows readers to verify source material

9 Q UOTING When employing a quote, you must display the author, year of publication and page number in your narration. Sample: 1” Margin 1” Margin Klein (2000) noted that some management theorists suggest, “that successful corporations must primarily produce brands, as opposed to products” (p. 3). [Version 2] Some management theorists suggested, “that successful corporations must primarily produce brands, as opposed to products” (Klein, 2000, p. 3). [Version 1] OR

10 When block quoting, you must display the author, year and page number in your narration. Sample: B LOCK Q UOTING 1” Margin ½” Klein (2000), in the book No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies, wrote: The astronomical growth in the wealth and cultural influence of multinational corporations over the last fifteen years can arguably be traced back to a single, seemingly innocuous idea developed by management theorists in the mid-1980s: that successful corporations must primarily produce brands, as opposed to products. (p. 3) 1” Margin

11 P ARAPHRASING When paraphrasing, you must display the author and year of publication in your narration. Sample: 1” Margin 1” Margin It is suggested that management theories, developed in the mid-1980s, put forth the idea that branding is as important to corporate success as the actual product that is produced (Klein, 2000). [Version 1] Klein (2000) suggested that management theories, developed in the mid- 1980s, put forth the idea that branding is as important to corporate success as the actual product that is produced. [Version 2] OR

12 B IBLIOGRAPHIC I NFORMATION Where do I find it? Books Title and publisher page Online Public Access/Library Catalogues (OPACs) Periodicals (journals, magazines, & newspapers) Cover, table of contents, or publication page in periodical Database’s (a.k.a. Online Periodical Index) abstract or citation Web Pages Scour the page and/or site (it will rarely be in one place) Others (pamphlets, posters, audiovisual media, etc.) Search carefully and provide as much information as possible

13 C ITATION – O NE A UTHOR Example: 1” Margin 1” Margin Klein, N. (2000). No logo: Taking aim at the brand bullies. Toronto, Canada: Vintage Canada. Hanging indent. Double spaced.

14 C ITATION – T WO A UTHORS Example In-text: Cushing and Allan (2001) compared… (Cushing & Allan, 2001) 1” Margin 1” Margin Cushing, C. E., & Allan, J. D. (2001). Streams: Their ecology and life. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

15 C ITATION – T HREE TO F IVE A UTHORS Example: In-text: First time citing work: Hayes, Strosahl and Wilson (1999) found… (Hayes, Stroshal, & Wilson, 1999) Subsequent Citations: Hayes et al. (1999) discovered…. (Hayes et al., 1999) 1” Margin 1” Margin Hayes, S. C., Stosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

16 C ITATION E XCEPTIONS Six or More Authors In text: Cite only the surname of the first author then et al. and the year Example: Wasserstein et al. (2005) found… (Wasserstein et al., 2005) Eight or more Authors in REFERENCE LIST Use the first six authors, then three ellipses and last authors name Example: Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard,G., …Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6,

17 C ITATION – C OMPANY /O RGANIZATION A S A UTHOR In-text: : Example: In-text: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). 1” Margin 1” Margin Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). CDC recommendations for the amount of time persons with influenza-like illness should be away from others. Retrieved from

18 C ITATION – M ULTIPLE W ORKS B Y T HE S AME A UTHOR Example: In-text: (Koriat, 2008a) and (Koriat, 2008b) References are alphabetized by title 1” Margin 1” Margin Koriat, A. (2008a). Easy comes, easy goes? The link between learning and remembering and its exploitation in metacognition. Memory & Cognition, 36, 416–428. doi: /MC Koriat, A. (2008b). Subjective confidence in one’s answers: The consensuality principle. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 945–959. doi: /

19 B OOKS & E B OOK C ITATION Entire Book - Print Version Greenburg, B.H. (2010). Management of heart failure. West Sussex, London: Wiley-Blackwell. Electronic Version of Print Book Greenburg, B.H. (2010). Management of heart failure. Retrieved from

20 P RINT J OURNAL A RTICLE C ITATION Example: 1” Margin 1” Margin Sockett, H. T. Harvard Educational Review, (1987). Has Shulman got the strategy right? 57 (2), 208– 219. Hanging indent. Double spaced.

21 W EB S ITE C ITATION Example: 1” Margin 1” Margin (2004). Garth, P. E. Research advances in the nursing sciences. from survey / Retrieved Hanging indent. Double spaced.

22 A DDITIONAL E XAMPLES Chapter/Section of a Book In-text: Regulus (1995) determined (Regulus, 1995). 1” Margin 1” Margin Regulus, T. A. (1995). Gang violence. In R. L. Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (19th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 1045–1055). Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.

23 A DDITIONAL E XAMPLES Journal Article with DOI In-text: Yu et al. (2009) discovered that.... It was discovered that... (Yu et al., 2009). 1” Margin 1” Margin Yu, H., Zhou, Y.-J., Li, G.-X., Zhang, G.-H., Liu, H.-L., Yan,... & Tong, G.-Z. (2009). Further evidence for infection of pigs with human-like influenza viruses in China. Virus Research, 140, 85–90. doi: /j.virusres

24 W HERE CAN I FIND THE DOI?

25 A DDITIONAL E XAMPLES Journal Article with no DOI In-text: According to Sillick and Schutte (2006) (Sillick & Schutte, 2006). 1” Margin 1” Margin Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self- esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2) Retrieved from

26 A DDITIONAL E XAMPLES Newspaper Article – no author In-text: In the article “Rotor Blades Fail Inspection” (2002) (“Rotor Blades Fail Inspection,” 2002). 1” Margin 1” Margin Rotor blades fail inspection. (2002, July 27). Medicine Hat News, p. A1.

27 A DDITIONAL E XAMPLES Wikis In-text: The article titled “American Psychological Association” (2009) suggests that.... It has been suggested that... (“American Psychological Association,” 2009). 1” Margin 1” Margin American Psychological Association [Wiki article]. (2009, July 9). Retrieved July 20, 2009, from American_Psychological _Association

28 A DDITIONAL E XAMPLES Video Blogs (e.g., YouTube) In-text: Simon Cowell, a notoriously difficult judge, said that Paul Potts's performance on Britain's Got Talent, "was a complete breath of fresh air" (myredroom, 2007). Cowell went on to say that, "I thought you were absolutely fantastic." 1” Margin 1” Margin myredroom. (2007, June 10). Paul sings Nessun Dorma high quality video/sound widescreen 16:9 [Video file]. Retrieved from

29 A DDITIONAL E XAMPLES Brochure In-text: In the brochure by Travel Alberta (2002) (Travel Alberta, 2002). 1” Margin 1” Margin Travel Alberta. (2002). Official Alberta vacation guide [Brochure]. Edmonton, Canada: Author.

30 A DDITIONAL E XAMPLES Video In-text: In the video Faces of Reality produced by Gillespie and directed by Ashworth (2000) (Gillespie & Ashworth, 2000). 1” Margin 1” Margin Gillespie, M. (Producer), & Ashworth, S. (Director). (2000). Faces of reality [Videotape]. Edmonton, Canada: Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission.

31 A DDITIONAL E XAMPLES No Date In-text: In the text by Rosenthal (n.d.) (Rosenthal, n.d.). 1” Margin 1” Margin Rosenthal, R. (n.d.). Social research procedures. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

32 A DDITIONAL R ESOURCES American Psychological Association. (2010).Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. American Psychological Association. (2010). Concise rules of APA style (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. APA Style.org -


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