Purdue University Writing Lab Using APA Format: HSB4MI ISU Research Report A workshop brought to you by the Purdue University Writing Lab (and by Ms. Smukavich!)
WHY APA FORMAT IS NECESSARY Use most often in social science research Purdue University Writing Lab
Why Use APA Format? (American Psychological Association) Allows readers to cross- reference your sources easily Provides consistent format within a discipline Gives you credibility as a writer Protects yourself from PLAGIARISM!
Purdue University Writing Lab Cross-Referencing Your Sources Cross-referencing allows readers to locate the publication information of source material. This is of great value for researchers who may want to locate your sources for their own research projects.
Using a Consistent Format Using APA properly will allow you to communicate more effectively with other researchers who also use APA. When a style is used consistently, others can easily find where you’ve listed your resources. Purdue University Writing Lab
Establishing Credibility The proper use of APA style shows the credibility of writers; such writers show accountability to their source material.
Purdue University Writing Lab Avoiding Plagiarism Proper citation of your sources in APA style can help you avoid plagiarism, which is a serious offense. It may result in anything from failure of the assignment to expulsion from school.
Purdue University Writing Lab APA Style: General Guidelines Your essay should be: typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11") with 1" margins on all sides. You should use 10-12 pt. Times New Roman font or a similar font. Include a page header at the top of every page. To create a page header, insert page numbers flush right. Then type "TITLE OF YOUR PAPER" in the header flush left page number in the upper right- hand side of every page
APA stylistics: Basics Use the third person point of view rather than using the first person point of view or the passive voice – do not use: I, Me, My, Us, We, You… The study showed that…, NOT, I found out that…. Use the active voice rather than passive voice The participants responded…, NOT, The participants have been asked…. Point of View and Voice in an APA paper: Purdue University Writing Lab
Clear: be specific in descriptions and explanations – use quotes and examples to back up all your points Concise: condense information when you can – watch run-on sentences, and group all like ideas/points together Plain: use simple, descriptive adjectives and minimize the figurative (metaphoric) language – use statistics and social science evidence to support your points Don’t just use ‘shift F7’ as a way to make your language seem more academic – a lot of the time it doesn’t make sense Language in an APA paper is: APA stylistics: Language Purdue University Writing Lab
No Extra Spacing Between Paragraphs Bellamy wrote his novel in the late nineteenth century when class conflict dominated much of industrial society, and consequently his novel is a response to the drastic economic, social and cultural changes of his time. The Gilded Age reinforced distinctions between the rich and the poor, as well as differences between rich and poor interests. It is therefore easy to comprehend Bellamy’s rationale for producing a society which eliminates all class distinctions. Bellamy addresses many of the predominate problems of the nineteenth century, and via his cooperative commonwealth, offers thorough explanations of how these problems are corrected in the twenty-first century. Bellamy wrote his novel in the late nineteenth century when class conflict dominated much of industrial society, and consequently his novel is a response to the drastic economic, social and cultural changes of his time. The Gilded Age reinforced distinctions between the rich and the poor, as well as differences between rich and poor interests. It is therefore easy to comprehend Bellamy’s rationale for producing a society which eliminates all class distinctions. Bellamy addresses many of the predominate problems of the nineteenth century, and via his cooperative commonwealth, offers thorough explanations of how these problems are corrected in the twenty-first century.
Purdue University Writing Lab APA Style: General Guidelines Your essay should include four major sections: Title Page Abstract Main Body References
Title Page Page header: (use Insert Page Header) title flush left + page number flush right. Title: - include a creative title for your report ***not just “ISU” (in the upper half of the page, centered ) name + school
Purdue University Writing Lab APA Style: Title Page Running Head: THE EFFECT OF DIVORCE ON CHILDREN 1 The Effect of Divorce on Children Jane Smith HSB 4MI Ms. Smukavich August 14, 2013 Page number begins on title page “Running Head” appears only on title page – thereafter just “THE EFFECTS OF DIVORCE ON CHILDREN” in capitals
Purdue University Writing Lab APA Style: Abstract THE EFFECT OF DIVORCE ON CHILDREN2 Abstract Write a concise summary of the key points of your research. (Do not indent.) Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, data collection methods and conclusions. Your abstract should be a single paragraph double-spaced. Your abstract should be between 150 and 250 words.
Purdue University Writing Lab APA Style: Parenthetical Citations in the Body of the Paper When summarizing facts and ideas from a source Summarizing means to take ideas from a large passage of another source and condense them, using your own words When paraphrasing a source Paraphrasing means to use the ideas from another source but change the phrasing into your own words— using a thesaurus to change a few key words does not count!
Purdue University Writing Lab APA Style: Parenthetical Citations in the Body of the Paper Author’s last name and year of publication must appear in the text For example: According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199). Note: Commas and “p” for page
Purdue University Writing Lab There are many different combinations and variations within APA citation format. If you run into something unusual, look it up! Handling Quotes in Your Text
Purdue University Writing Lab References Note: Not Works Cited Page A complete list of every source that you make reference to in your essay Provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any sources cited in your essay.
Purdue University Writing Lab Most citations should contain the following basic information: Author’s name Publication date Title [italicized] Publication place References Page
References Page – Last Page of your Report APA Header and page # Center the title–References-- at the top of the page, NO underline or bold Double-space reference entries Flush left the first line of the entry and indent all the following lines Order entries alphabetically by the author’s surnames or article title if no author
Purdue University Writing Lab Book Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher. An Entry in An Encyclopedia Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica. References: Some Examples (Print)
Purdue University Writing Lab References: Some Examples (Web) Online Periodical Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number (issue number if available). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ Website Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149. Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving
Purdue University Writing Lab What other types of sources might you need to list on your References page? Study the basics of APA citation format. When something odd comes up, LOOK IT UP or ASK!!! References
Purdue University Writing Lab NOW YOU KNOW! Purdue University Writing Lab It is your responsibility to properly cite your sources in all the work you do for this class. Failure to do so will result in negative consequences. Consider yourself warned!