Presentation on theme: "APA STYLE Created by Denise Regeimbal and Amanda Rutstein, 2012 Updated by Connie Dowell, 2013."— Presentation transcript:
APA STYLE Created by Denise Regeimbal and Amanda Rutstein, 2012 Updated by Connie Dowell, 2013
B ASIC APA R ESEARCH P APER E LEMENTS Structure and content Clear and concise organization Mechanics of style Tables and figures Parenthetical citations References
L ANGUAGE AND B IAS APA is a style developed for scientific research. As such, APA papers strive to achieve clarity and to avoid bias or biased language. Try not to use language that makes assumptions about particular demographic groups or reinforces stereotypes. Additionally, while you may come to conclusions about data, avoid personal opinions not backed by evidence or discussion of personal experiences (unless permitted by your assignment).
G ETTING S TARTED G ENERAL D OCUMENT F ORMATTING Setting up a Word document Select Font/Font Size Times New Roman Font Size 12 1” margins all around Left justified with right ragged edge Double spaced All paper elements should be double spaced except in-text table/figure notation Indent the first line of all paragraphs
T ITLE P AGE E LEMENTS Header Running head and paper title Page numbers Title page body Paper Title Your Name Institution The university pledge APA sample title page
B ASIC APA E LEMENTS OF A R ESEARCH P APER Abstract Sample APA style research paper Basic Elements of a Research Paper Introduction Body of paper In-text citations Parenthetical Tables and figures Conclusion References Reference page format Order of source information for each resource Order of all sources on reference page (alphabetized) Hanging indent—1/2 inch
H EADING L EVELS
P ARENTHETICAL C ITATIONS : P ARAPHRASING Paraphrased information is cited with the last name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication. Punctuation goes after the parentheses. You can include your citation at the end of the sentence (Smith, 2013). Or if you use the author’s name in the sentence, you can place the year in parentheses next to it. According to Smith (2013), Some professors require page or paragraph numbers for paraphrased material
P ARENTHETICAL C ITATIONS : Q UOTING Quoted material is cited with the author(s), the year of publication and the page or paragraph numbers of the quotation. …end of the quote” (Smith, 2013, p. 7). Or for multiple pages: (Smith, 2013, pp.7-8). …end of the quote” (Smith, 2013, para. 7). For multiple paragraphs: (Smith, 2013, para. 7-8). Paragraph numbers are used for online documents without page numbers
Q UOTATION R ULES Frame all quotes Block quotes: Any quote longer than 40 words (or at the professor’s discretion) Indent each line of the quote For quotes that stretch over more than one paragraph, further indent the first line of the new paragraph (as shown on the next slide) Omit quotation marks Though the APA book shows example in single space, it instructs readers to double space their block quotes.
B LOCK Q UOTE E XAMPLE Introduction to block quote: The first line of text begins here. This line starts a new paragraph. The paragraph continues onto the next line and so forth. Note the indentation showing the start of a new paragraph. After you have finished your quote, you will return to typing flush left (Smith, 2013, p. 7). The paragraph picks up here.
C HANGES IN Q UOTATIONS You can alter capitalization of the first word or punctuation marks in quotes to make them work within your sentence. You don’t need to indicate that you have changed anything. If you omit part of the quote, use ellipses (…) to show something is missing. If you must change or insert a word for clarity, do so within brackets. If you add emphasis (italics), use [emphasis added]. To indicate that an unusual spelling or grammatical issue in a quote is original (and not your mistake) use [sic] after the error.
M ULTIPLE A UTHORS Authors are cited in the order in which they appear on the document you are citing. (Smith & Young, 2013). (Smith, Young, & Blunt, 2013). When using authors’ names in a sentence, do not use “&.” Spell out “and.” For citations with more than two authors, use all names the first time you cite. In subsequent citations use only the first author, then “et al.” (Smith, et al., 2013)
M ULTIPLE S OURCES Sometimes you may paraphrase information that is echoed in multiple sources. Use a single set of parentheses and separate citations with a semicolon. Order them alphabetically. (Blunt, 2005; Smith, 2013; Young, 2001).
S ECONDARY S OURCE C ITATIONS It is best to see the original source if possible, but sometimes you may need to cite ideas that were cited in one of your sources, though you could not read the original work. Do not include secondary sources on your reference page, but do give credit in the text and cite the source you did see like this: Jones’ research (as cited in Young, 2012) In the example above, Young is the source the writer saw. He or she did not see Jones’ work. Young would go on the reference page. Jones would not.
P ERSONAL C OMMUNICATIONS Interviews, phone conversations, s and other forms of private communication are cited in the text, but do not appear on the reference page. J. Smith (personal communication, September 20, 2012) (J. Smith, personal communication, September 20, 2012)
S OME C OMMON R EFERENCE T YPES Book: Smith, J. & Young, K. L. (2012). Book title. Location: Publisher. Chapter in an Edited Book: Young, K. L. (2002). Chapter title. In J. Smith (Ed.), Book title. (pp. 7-22). Location: Publisher. Ebook: Smith, J. & Young, K. L. (2012). Book title. Retrieved from Journal Article: Blunt, R. S. & Young, K. L. (2005). Title of the article. Name of the Journal, 7 (2), doi: xxxxxxx
W HAT ’ S A DOI? A DOI (digital object identifier) is a number used to index journal articles (and some other documents) so that researchers can easily locate them and buy copies or access supplemental material. The DOI may appear with other publication information on the first or last page of a journal article or in an upper or lower corner. You may also find the DOI with the abstract when you find a journal through a database. If a journal article has no DOI, and it is available online, end the reference with “Retrieved from” and the URL of the journal’s home page.
W HAT ABOUT A W EBSITE ? APA does not provide reference examples for simple websites. You can construct references for individual pages using principles of APA citation. The following are commonly used constructions, but ALWAYS check with your professor to find out his or her preferred style! Author, A. (2013). Title of page. Retrieved from Author, A. (2013). Title of page. Retrieved from Again, these are NOT official APA examples. There are NO APA examples for websites.
M ISSING I NFORMATION If you don’t have a date on a document, use “n.d.” in the reference and for in text citations. (Smith, n.d., p. 7). If there is no author listed for a document put the title first, then the date, then the rest of the reference information. For in-text citations, use the first few words of the title in place of the author: (“The great depression,” 2003). Keep in mind, however, that authors are not always individual people. Corporations, organizations, or government entities can be authors of material produced on behalf of the organization as a whole.
E XTRAS Following the professor’s specific instructions Using the MS Word References tab or other formatting software Whole numbers under 10 are spelled out while whole numbers over 10 are numerical. Article titles are not framed with quotation marks in the reference list PDFs of documents can be cited just like paper copies. Do not cite Wikipedia…just don’t
W RITING C ENTER I NFORMATION Fredericksburg Campus Writing Center (540) Located in Trinkle 107A Monday-Thursday 10-5 and Friday 10-3 Stafford Campus Writing Center (540) Located in the lobby of the South Building Monday-Thursday 3-8; Friday 3-7 Online-only hours Monday-Thursday, Saturday 9- 12; Sunday 6-9 *Handouts regarding APA Style guidelines and punctuation rules are available at both the Fredericksburg and Stafford Writing Centers
W HERE TO G O F OR ADDITIONAL I NFORMATION Sixth Edition of APA Publication Manual Purchase highly recommended Stafford Writing Center website Fredericksburg Writing Center website APA website The Purdue Online Writing Lab (Purdue Owl) Purdue Owl