Presentation on theme: "APA STYLE Created by Denise Regeimbal and Amanda Rutstein, 2012"— Presentation transcript:
1 APA STYLE Created by Denise Regeimbal and Amanda Rutstein, 2012 Updated by Connie Dowell, 2013This power point provides students with answers to commonly asked questions about formatting research papers in APA style. APA style is the paper writing format used by the College of Business, the College of Education, and some departments in the College of Arts and Sciences, to insure that all submitted papers follow a similar pattern for source documentation of reference material and also provide a clear and concise method of delivery for the individual elements and body of the paper.Using APA style prevents misunderstanding by giving the reader the ability to pay attention to the content of the research, rather than questioning the mechanics of the information provided. Standardization equals better focus for the reader: you, your colleagues, and your professor.
2 Basic APA Research Paper Elements Structure and contentClear and concise organizationMechanics of styleTables and figuresParenthetical citationsReferencesThe content and written portion of a research paper are the most important aspects of the student's writing; however, the presentation shows that the student, the writer, cares. The basic formatting elements of APA style are structure and content; clear and concise organization, mechanics of style, tables and figures, crediting sources within the text, and a references page.
3 Language and BiasAPA is a style developed for scientific research. As such, APA papers strive to achieve clarity and to avoid bias or biased language. Try not to use language that makes assumptions about particular demographic groups or reinforces stereotypes. Additionally, while you may come to conclusions about data, avoid personal opinions not backed by evidence or discussion of personal experiences (unless permitted by your assignment).
4 Getting Started General Document Formatting Setting up a Word documentSelect Font/Font SizeTimes New RomanFont Size 121” margins all aroundLeft justified with right ragged edgeDouble spacedAll paper elements should be double spaced except in-text table/figure notationIndent the first line of all paragraphsPrior to actually beginning to put words on a blank computer document, formatting the document with APA style formatting elements makes it virtually unnecessary to make general technical corrections and adjustments at other times during the writing process.First, be sure to select the Times New Roman font with a font size of 12. Next, be sure that the margins of the blank document are set at 1" all around. Also, that the margins are left justified with a right ragged edge. Finally, be sure to set up the document to be double-spaced between all sentences, paragraphs, and section headings. If MS Word is being used, in the Paragraph tab under line spacing, click on Remove Space After Paragraph. This will insure that all spacing within the paper will be double-space only and there will be no need for adjustments later.
5 Title Page Elements Header Title page body Running head and paper titlePage numbersTitle page bodyPaper TitleYour NameInstitutionThe university pledgeAPA sample title pageIn the header section of the title page, the words Running head, then a colon, and then the title in all capital letters are required. These should be left justified. In addition, the page number should also appear, but be right justified. On subsequent pages the words Running head are omitted and only the title in all capital letters and page number are needed. In MS Word, this is accomplished by clicking on Different First Page in the design tab when formatting the header.All that is required in the body of the title page is the paper title, your name, and University of Mary Washington; however, some students add additional information or a professor may request it. This is generally not a problem. Also, don’t forget to add the pledge under the institution name or in the footer and sign near the pledge before turning the paper in!
6 Basic APA Elements of a Research Paper AbstractSample APA style research paperBasic Elements of a Research PaperIntroductionBody of paperIn-text citationsParenthetical Tables and figuresConclusionReferencesReference page formatOrder of source information for each resourceOrder of all sources on reference page (alphabetized)Hanging indent—1/2 inchOne element which may be included in an APA style paper is an abstract but this is up to the professor. If an abstract is requested, write it after the paper is completed. The abstract is a word summary of the contents of the paper. It lets the potential reader have a glimpse of the information that is included in the body of the paper, and they can decide whether they might find the information useful or not. The abstract is located on a separate page between the title page and the introduction to the paper.The introduction follows the abstract, and it is where the reader’s interest is piqued on the topic of the paper and also where the thesis is stated or the problem being solved is described.Next is the body of the paper which is where the bulk of the citations will be. The citations give credit to the sources used while also providing the reader with the ability to easily locate the researched information, either to verify it for themselves or to do additional research. Citations should be included with: direct quotations, anything that is not common knowledge, summarized or paraphrased material, and statistics and graphics. The general rule for in-text citation is to either include them as part of a sentence for instance: Roberts (2009) states…, or at the end of a sentence (Roberts, 2005). A page number is required after any quoted material and some professor’s will require it for any research; however, in general, the page number is only needed with a quotation.APA style also has rules for labeling tables and figures. Click on the Powerpoint link for a handout with instructions.And of course, the paper will have a conclusion. Not just a summary of what has been written thus far, but some meaningful discussion of why the topic is important, answering the “So what?” question.Another element, the reference page will list all the sources (and only those sources) that were used in the body of the paper. Each reference page entry should include the author’s name (or the title for works with no author), the publication date, the title of the article, the title of the periodical, and the publication information. For example, HerbstDamm, K. L. & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, doi: / There are variances for different types of sources, but each generally follows this format.Finally, the professor may request some elements that aren't required in APA style such as an Executive Summary, a Table of Contents, special page numbering, or appendices that are located in an excel document. These do require special handling, but there is some leeway in the way they are presented in a paper. The Writing Center or the professor can help with these components.
7 Heading LevelsHeading levels are an important organizational tool used in APA Style. There are five heading levels which are useful to show the subordination of material within a paper. For a handout showing the heading levels, click on the heading level link. In a scientific paper, your heading levels may be Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. In a research paper more conceptual headings will be used. For example, in a paper titled Strategy and Leadership of Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers (one of America’s greatest rock and roll bands!), the first level heading might be “Motion Picture Interview” rather than Introduction. In the body of the paper, a first level heading might be “Vision” and second level headings under this might be “Petty’s Vision” and “Primary Organization’s Vision.” Keep in mind, with these conceptual headings, the terminology used will allow the reader to know what will be discussed in a particular section.
8 Parenthetical Citations: Paraphrasing Paraphrased information is cited with the last name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication. Punctuation goes after the parentheses.You can include your citation at the end of the sentence (Smith, 2013).Or if you use the author’s name in the sentence, you can place the year in parentheses next to it.According to Smith (2013),Some professors require page or paragraph numbers for paraphrased material
9 Parenthetical Citations: Quoting Quoted material is cited with the author(s), the year of publication and the page or paragraph numbers of the quotation.…end of the quote” (Smith, 2013, p. 7).Or for multiple pages: (Smith, 2013, pp.7-8).…end of the quote” (Smith, 2013, para. 7).For multiple paragraphs: (Smith, 2013, para. 7-8).Paragraph numbers are used for online documents without page numbers
10 Quotation Rules Frame all quotes Block quotes: Any quote longer than 40 words (or at the professor’s discretion)Indent each line of the quoteFor quotes that stretch over more than one paragraph, further indent the first line of the new paragraph (as shown on the next slide)Omit quotation marksThough the APA book shows example in single space, it instructs readers to double space their block quotes.It is important to put all quotes in context. The student writer may understand why a particular quote is appropriate to a particular topic or paragraph, or to whom the quote can be attributed, but the reader might need further clarification.Make sure all quoted material is introduced and explicated.Likewise, quotes make terrible transition sentences, so try to avoid ending any paragraph with a quote.
11 Block Quote ExampleIntroduction to block quote: The first line of text begins here. This line starts a new paragraph. The paragraph continues onto the next line and so forth. Note the indentation showing the start of a new paragraph. After you have finished your quote, you will return to typing flush left (Smith, 2013, p. 7). The paragraph picks up here.
12 Changes in QuotationsYou can alter capitalization of the first word or punctuation marks in quotes to make them work within your sentence. You don’t need to indicate that you have changed anything.If you omit part of the quote, use ellipses (…) to show something is missing.If you must change or insert a word for clarity, do so within brackets. If you add emphasis (italics), use [emphasis added].To indicate that an unusual spelling or grammatical issue in a quote is original (and not your mistake) use [sic] after the error.
13 Multiple AuthorsAuthors are cited in the order in which they appear on the document you are citing.(Smith & Young, 2013).(Smith, Young, & Blunt, 2013).When using authors’ names in a sentence, do not use “&.” Spell out “and.”For citations with more than two authors, use all names the first time you cite. In subsequent citations use only the first author, then “et al.”(Smith, et al., 2013)
14 Multiple SourcesSometimes you may paraphrase information that is echoed in multiple sources. Use a single set of parentheses and separate citations with a semicolon. Order them alphabetically.(Blunt, 2005; Smith, 2013; Young, 2001).
15 Secondary Source Citations It is best to see the original source if possible, but sometimes you may need to cite ideas that were cited in one of your sources, though you could not read the original work. Do not include secondary sources on your reference page, but do give credit in the text and cite the source you did see like this:Jones’ research (as cited in Young, 2012)In the example above, Young is the source the writer saw. He or she did not see Jones’ work. Young would go on the reference page. Jones would not.
16 Personal Communications Interviews, phone conversations, s and other forms of private communication are cited in the text, but do not appear on the reference page.J. Smith (personal communication, September 20, 2012)(J. Smith, personal communication, September 20, 2012)
17 Some Common Reference Types Book:Smith, J. & Young, K. L. (2012). Book title. Location: Publisher.Chapter in an Edited Book:Young, K. L. (2002). Chapter title. In J. Smith (Ed.), Book title.(pp. 7-22). Location: Publisher.Ebook:Smith, J. & Young, K. L. (2012). Book title. Retrieved fromJournal Article:Blunt, R. S. & Young, K. L. (2005). Title of the article. Name of theJournal, 7(2), doi: xxxxxxx
18 What’s a DOI?A DOI (digital object identifier) is a number used to index journal articles (and some other documents) so that researchers can easily locate them and buy copies or access supplemental material.The DOI may appear with other publication information on the first or last page of a journal article or in an upper or lower corner. You may also find the DOI with the abstract when you find a journal through a database.If a journal article has no DOI, and it is available online, end the reference with “Retrieved from” and the URL of the journal’s home page.
19 What about a Website?APA does not provide reference examples for simple websites. You can construct references for individual pages using principles of APA citation. The following are commonly used constructions, but ALWAYS check with your professor to find out his or her preferred style!Author, A. (2013). Title of page. Retrieved fromAgain, these are NOT official APA examples. There are NO APA examples for websites.
20 Missing InformationIf you don’t have a date on a document, use “n.d.” in the reference and for in text citations.(Smith, n.d., p. 7).If there is no author listed for a document put the title first, then the date, then the rest of the reference information. For in-text citations, use the first few words of the title in place of the author: (“The great depression,” 2003).Keep in mind, however, that authors are not always individual people. Corporations, organizations, or government entities can be authors of material produced on behalf of the organization as a whole.
21 Extras Following the professor’s specific instructions Using the MS Word References tab or other formatting softwareWhole numbers under 10 are spelled out while whole numbers over 10 are numerical.Article titles are not framed with quotation marks in the reference listPDFs of documents can be cited just like paper copies.Do not cite Wikipedia…just don’tSince individual professors sometimes have specific paper requirements and sometimes request different mechanical and formatting elements than those stated in this PowerPoint, always follow the professor’s guidelines. However, if the professor’s directions are not clear, just ask them to explain. Professors are more than willing to provide help and clarification.Next, it may be helpful to use reference formatting software, such as Zotero. These programs can help format source information while also maintaining the references in an online file for use on a future paper. It is always a good idea to double check the references generated by these programs against an example reference to make sure all of the important source elements are put in the correct order.Heading levels are an important organizational tool used in APA Style. There are five heading levels which are useful to show the subordination of material within a paper. For a handout showing the heading levels, click on the heading level link. In a scientific paper, your heading levels may be Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. In a research paper more conceptual headings will be used. For example, in a paper titled Strategy and Leadership of Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers (one of America’s greatest rock and roll bands!), the first level heading might be “Motion Picture Interview” rather than Introduction. In the body of the paper, a first level heading might be “Vision” and second level headings under this might be “Petty’s Vision” and “Primary Organization’s Vision.” Keep in mind, with these conceptual headings, the terminology used will allow the reader to know what will be discussed in a particular section.
22 Writing Center Information Fredericksburg Campus Writing Center(540)Located in Trinkle 107AMonday-Thursday 10-5 and Friday 10-3Stafford Campus Writing Center(540)Located in the lobby of the South BuildingMonday-Thursday 3-8; Friday 3-7Online-only hours Monday-Thursday, Saturday 9- 12; Sunday 6-9*Handouts regarding APA Style guidelines and punctuation rules are available at both the Fredericksburg and Stafford Writing Centers
23 Where to Go For additional Information Sixth Edition of APA Publication ManualPurchase highly recommendedStafford Writing Center websiteFredericksburg Writing Center websiteAPA websiteThe Purdue Online Writing Lab (Purdue Owl)Purdue Owl